BIOL10004 Lecture Notes - Endergonic Reaction, Exergonic Reaction, Citric Acid Cycle

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BIOL Lecture 7
Respiration
Energy
chemical and energy transformation in cells
o metabolism
sequence of chemical reactions
o metabolic pathways
energy is the capacity to do work
o potential energy is stored energy
o kinetic energy is expressed as movement
energy transformations are governed by the laws of thermodynamics
o complex systems require energy to build and maintain
o and energy is conserved it ist destroed
harvesting chemical energy
organisms convert chemical energy of fuel molecules to useable energy in the form
of ATP (ATP is used to drive cellular processes)
energy is released along metabolic (catabolic) pathways
o CHOs processed by glycolysis - faster
o Lipids processed by ß-oxidation - slower
Products of these pathways act as substrates for cellular respiration
o Glycolysis, fermentation, krebs cycle, ETC
ATP
Energy released from an exergonic reaction is used to phosphorylate ADP, which is
then dephosphorylated to drive an endergonic reaction
Enzymes
Enzymes are biological catalysts that
lower the activation energy in
reactants (substrates)
o Enzyme- catalysed reactions
require less activation energy
o They proceed thousands of
times faster
Enzyme catalytic cycle
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Electron transport pathways
Enzymes for particular pathways are often physically linked substrate channelling
o Because they occur in sequence so need to be close - efficiency
Electrons are transferred from donor to acceptor
o Molecule that loses electron is oxidised
o Molecule that gains electron is reduced
Transfer reactions are oxidation-reduction reactions (redox)
Overview of cellular respiration
Glycolysis: initial processing of glucose
Occurs in cytosol
Net producer of energy not much though net 2 ATP
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Mitochondria
evolved from engulfed prokaryotes
site of cellular respiration
o release energy by oxidation of sugars and lipids
o released energy stored in ATP
o cells with high level of metabolic activity have large numbers of mitochondria
double membrane inner is convoluted and forms cristae,
Intermembrane space between inner and outer membranes, matrix within inner
membrane
o The interplay between what happens in intermembrane space and matrix is
important in understanding cellular respiration
Krebs cycle: completing the oxidation of fuels
Turns twice for each glucose molecule (once for each of the 2 pyruvates)
NADH is a temporary electron carrier
Electron Transport Chain
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Document Summary

Atp: energy released from an exergonic reaction is used to phosphorylate adp, which is then dephosphorylated to drive an endergonic reaction. Enzymes: enzymes are biological catalysts that lower the activation energy in reactants (substrates, enzyme- catalysed reactions require less activation energy, they proceed thousands of times faster. Glycolysis: initial processing of glucose: occurs in cytosol, net producer of energy not much though net 2 atp. Intermembrane space between inner and outer membranes, matrix within inner membrane: the interplay between what happens in intermembrane space and matrix is important in understanding cellular respiration. Krebs cycle: completing the oxidation of fuels: turns twice for each glucose molecule (once for each of the 2 pyruvates) Action of atp synthase: channel allows h+ to move freely down electrochemical gradient, movement is source of energy of atp synthesis, every 3 h+ that cross provide enough energy to form one atp.

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