BIOL10004 Lecture Notes - Lecture 19: Asexual Reproduction, Egg Cell, Gamete

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Semester 1, 2018 Sam Midler
BIOL Lecture 19
Reproduction I
Asexual reproduction
mitotic cell division
offspring genetically identical to parents
o no exchange of genetic material
allows a single individual to produce a colony
o corals, hydra (budding), sea stars (fragmentation)
common among invertebrates but also some vertebrates
o stream fish, some geckos, snakes and sharks
parthenogenesis
advantageous for animals living in constant, stable environments
parthenogenesis occurs through use of ova and the female reproductive system
o process where an egg develops without being fertilised
also occurs in fluctuating environments
facultative parthenogenesis use asexual or sexual reproduction depending on
environment, food resources and mate availability
sexual reproduction
exchange of genetic information
common strategy among both invertebrates and vertebrates
needs two sexes female / male
o female: produce a few large gametes (eggs) non-motile, contribute all
cytoplasm and DNA embryo
o male: produce many small gametes (Sperm) motile, usually only contribute
DNA
mitosis and meiosis
mitosis
o somatic cell division
o no exchange or genetic material
o asexual reproduction
meiosis
o specialised form of cell division
o haploid (1n) gametes fuse to
form a new diploid (2n) individual
o sexual reproduction
sexual reproduction requires
mechanisms to get sperm and egg
together fertilisation
o offspring a combination of
genetics
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