BIOL10004 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Cell Division, Sister Chromatids, Protein Filament

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BIOL Lecture 5
Cell division and mitosis
Cell division (cytokinesis) in prokaryotes
Binary fission
FtsZ protein filament temperature sensitive
o Identified originally as a mutation that altered bacterial cell shape and
division frequency
o Assembles a ring of filaments right where two daughter cells begin to
separate
o Homologue (distant relative) of eukaryotic cytoskeletal protein tubulin
o Involved in the division of chloroplasts and mitochondria
Cell cycle in eukaryotes
G1: gap before duplication
o Right after mitosis where it needs to grow enough again to divide
o Growth phase
o G0 soe cells coe out of G1 ad do’t cotiue the cycle ad stay the
way they are
S: DNA synthesis and chromosome duplication
o Where chromosomes become duplicated
G2: gap before mitosis
o Now have duplicated chromosomes
o Sister chromatids held together at the centromere
o Prepare for final stage of cell division
o Organise all the genetic material so its ready to go through mitosis and
cytokinesis
Three checkpoints in the eukaryotic cycle
o G1 checkpoint
Late in g1 cycle where the cell assesses If it is big enough to enter S
phase
o G2 checkpoint
Cell will check
if all DNA has
replicated
properly and if
it is ready for
mitosis
o M checkpoint
During
metaphase
Checks if all the
chromosomes
are present
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