# CHEM1011 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Limiting Reagent, Stoichiometry, Fluorine

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CHEM1011 Chemistry 1A Part 1
LEC 1:
Theory
Dalto’s Atoi Theory 83: all atter osists of atos that a either e
reated or destroyed. Atos of oe eleet a’t e sudivided or haged ito
atoms of another element.
o The Cathode Ray (1897): detected electrons
o Alpha-Particle scattering: showed mass of an atom is concentrated (nucleus)
M = mass number, Z = number of protons (atomic number), n = ionic charge
Isotopes: Different number of neutrons
Calculations
Average atomic mass of an element using isotopes:
63Cu (abundance 69.09%, amu 62.930)
65Cu (abundance 30.91%, amu 64.928)
Let Cu = 10,000 atoms
63Cu = 6909 atoms x 62.930 amu
65Cu = 3091 atoms x 64.928 amu
= (6909 x 62.930) + (3091 x 64.928) amu
= 635,480/10,000
= 63.55 amu
LEC 2: Nomenclature
Theory
Chemical Formulae:
o Binary compounds
Left of periodic table first (metals)
Hydrogen last (except group 16 and 17)
If elements in same group, lowest first
o Ionic compounds
Cation then anion
o Covalent compounds
Carbon
Hydrogen
Remaining elements (alphabetical order e.g. C2H6O6)
Nomenclature:
o Inorganic compounds
Left of periodic table (lower first)
Element that is first retains its elemental name
Second element ends with -ide (e.g. chlor-ide)
Multiples of same element add prefix (mono, di, tri)
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