BIOL1002 Lecture 1: week 1 part 3

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Bryophytes (mosses and lichens which are dominant gametophyte) were among the first land plants. Mosses are non-vascular plants (which is why they are limited in size) and are highly dependent on water for survival and reproduction. Plants are anchored to surfaces by rhizoids, hair-like structures formed by single cells. Moss sperm are flagellated, and swim to eggs through raindrops or puddles, hence why these species or found in damp areas. Adaptation: shoot and root system (first plant to possess true roots specialised structures for nutrient acquisition), and vascular system (specialised conducting tissues, reinforced with lignin, for trafficking of water and nutrients). Ferns are seedless vascular plants among the first species to have vascular systems. Like mosses, fern sperm possess flagella and are water-dependent. Unlike mosses, the sporophyte is the dominant life phase in ferns, beginning a trend for other multicellular plants. Plant shoot and root systems are specialised for photosynthesis (shoots) and nutrient acquisition (roots) known as xylem and phloem.

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