1: INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION Structure = anatomy Function = physiology LEVELS OF STURCTURAL ORGANIZATION The body is organized into 6 distinct levels of increasing complexity. Chemical atoms bond to form molecules with 3D structures. Cellular a variety of molecules combine to form the fluid and organelles of a body cell. Tissue a community of similar cells form a form a body tissue. Organ two or more different tissues combine to form an organ. Organ system two or more organs work closely together to perform the functions of a system. Organismal level many organ systems work together to perform the functions of an independent organism. ORGAN SYSTEMS OF THE HUMAN BODY Integumentary skin, hair, nails, sweat glands Encloses internal body structures Site of many sensory receptors. Regulation of body temp Skeletal cartilage, bones, joints. Support Storage of calcium and other minerals. Formation of blood cells. Movement (with muscular system) Muscular skeletal muscles, tendons. Movement (with skeletal system) and support for other tissues. Maintains body temperature. Nervous brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves. Detects and processes sensory info and then directs immediate responses. Activates bodily responses. Endocrine adrenal, thyroid and pituitary glands, pancreas, testes, ovaries. Secretes hormones Directs long term changes in activities of other organ systems. Regulates bodily processes Cardiovascular heart, blood vessels Delivers oxygen and nutrients to tissues. Equalizes temperature in body Lymphatic thymus, lymph nodes, spleen, lymphatic vessels. Returns fluid to blood Defence against pathogens Respiratory nasal passage, trachea, lungs Removes co2 Produces sound. Delivers oxygen to blood Digestive stomach, liver, gall bladder, intestines Processes food and conserves water. Removes waste and absorbs nutrients Urinary kidneys, urinary bladder Controls water balance Removes waste from blood Reproductive epididymis, testes (male) mammary glands, ovaries, uterus (female) Produces sex hormones and gametes Delivers gametes to female (male) Supports fetus till birth and produces milk for infant (female) MEMBRANES OF THE ANTERIOR (VENTRAL) BODY CAVITY Serous membrane (serosa) thin membranes that cover the walls and organs in the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities. Pleura serous membrane that surrounds the lungs in the pleural cavity. Pericardium serous membranes that surrounds the heart in the pericardial cavity. Peritoneumserous membrane that surrounds several organs in the abdominopelvic cavity.