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Lecture 1

SLE133 Lecture 1: SLE133 Lecture Notes - All Lectures

24 Pages

Course Code
SLE 133
Xavier Conlan

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1.1 Chemistry: The Central Science Chemistry: the study of the nature, properties and transformations of matter. Matter: anything that has mass and occupies space. Therefore, things you can see, touch, taste or smell. Scientific method: the process of observation, hypothesis and experimentation used to expand a body of knowledge. Property: a characteristic useful for identifying a substance or object (size, colour, temp, chemical composition and reactivity) Physical change: change that does not affect the chemical makeup of a substance or object. Chemical change: change in the chemical makeup of a substance. 1.2 States of Matter Solid: a substance that has a defined shape and volume. Liquid: a substance that has a definite volume but assumes the shape of its container. Gas: a substance that has neither a definite volume nor a definite shape. Many substances can exist in all 3 phases, and participate in changes of state. 1.3 Classification of Matter Substances are classified as either: Pure substance: a substance that has a uniform chemical composition throughout. They have definite proportions (ratios) and elements are always in the same ratio. Element: a fundamental substance that cannot be broken down chemically into any simpler substance. Chemical compound: a pure substance that can be broken down chemically into simpler substances. Mixture: a blend of 2 or more substances, each of which retains its chemical identity. Homogeneous mixture: a uniform mixture that has the same composition throughout. (one type of phase) Heterogeneous mixture: a nonuniform mixture that has regions of different composition (multiple phases) Water can be chemically changed by passing an electric current through it to produce hydrogen and oxygen. 1.4 Chemical Elements and Symbols Physical properties can be seen without changing the identity of the substance. Chemical properties can only be seen or measured when the substance undergoes a chemical change. 1.5 Elements and the Periodic Table The periodic table is divided into: Metals Solid at room temp except mercury. Lustrous (shiny) and malleable Good conductors of heat and electricity. Nonmetals Poor conductors of heat and electricity Brittle when solid. 11 are gases, 6 are solids and bromine is a liquid Metalloids Properties are intermediate between metals and nonmetals. 1.6 Chemical Change: An Example of a Chemical Reaction An example of chemical change taking place can be shown by a change in colour, the dissolving of a substance or the appearance of bubbles. 1.7 Physical Quantities Physical quantities: a physical property that can be measured (mass, volume, temp, density). Unit: a defined quantity used as a standard of measurement. Derived units: Speed: meters per second (ms) Density: grams per cubic centimetre (gcm )
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