Science Notes - First 5 weeks

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School of Education and Professional Studies
David Gleenan

Lecture 1: Better to have a comprehensive lesson plan than an open ended one (duh.) David Geelam 2nd time teaching this course Teaching in University for 15 years Email [email protected] Work Phone 5552 8647 Office Location G30 Rm 3.29 Office Hours Please email me at [email protected] to arrange a meeting. No final exam! There is no major essay type assignment either. Assessment task 1 - online discussion Discussion board link is on the [email protected] site There are 3 topics - Doesn't count words, but don't go over too far. Shouldn't be just opinion, should be opinion and sources - Respond a response to the 3 topics - Anytime during the semester (respond to them early) - And then respond to the responses of two other people - Make sure you are professional and kind. But also make sure you are critical (sandwich). - 50% of the marks come from here - Nothing is handed in on paper Topic 1: national curriculum - what's going on with science - In responses, it should be obvious what you are responding to. - You can use first person, that's ok - Completeness is not sufficient for a 7. Make it outstanding by meeting all the criteria - Read more than what is assigned - An outstanding assignment is outstanding - Required to do 5, but you can do as many - Due date is the end of semester, but do them early (3rd or 4th week) Assessment 2 - Quizzes - Online - 10 Questions each week - Weeks 2 - 6 - Relate to the stuff from the lectures - Kind of science we will be understanding in Primary school - Have 1 week to finish them - They must be finished by the following Sunday night - Do it by yourself - Marks are returned instantly - 1 hrs - 10 multiple choice questions Discussion postings will be marked quickly as well Energy has to come from somewhere - will be discussing throughout the course 2 science courses - Prim. science 1 - physical sciences - physics and chemistry - Prim. science 2 - life science - space, biology etc Prim science 1 is harder 4 Definitions of Science - Methods for testing knowledge claims - Knowledge we have already accumulated and tested - Domain of knowledge - Ethics and commitments Scientia - Greek root that means knowledge Lecture 2 What is curriculum? - Restraints / desired outcomes - collaborating around the content - state, national, local See slide 1 - The syllabus is the document that is handed down by the government - what must be taught and how it is assessed The curriculum is developed by the teacher that covers the content in the syllabus ** Hidden curriculum - behaviour, collaboration, teamwork, test wiseness - rules of the game ** Lesson plans as to what the students will do, not really what the teacher is doing Three strands in AU Curr. for Science - Good for discussion topic - Science understanding (SU) - content knowledge - Science Inquiry Skills (SIS) Methods of science - Science as a human endeavour (SHE) history and philosophy of Science Common SI in Science (seconds, meters) Example: Getting from house to shop (lake in the middle) time (s) (seconds) distance (m) (meters) speed (m/s) acceleration (how fast the speed is changing each second) (m/s/s) direction kilo = thousand mega = million giga = billion tera = trillion micro = one millionth milli = one thousandth nano = one billionth centi = one hundredth Forces Contact and non contact forces Contact: directory pushing or pulling Non-contact: 2 magnets close together, gravity etc - Forces cause objects to accelerate - Friction is a kind of force that acts against motion Newtons laws of motion - First law: An object remains at rest or keeps moving at the same speed in a straight line unless it is acted on by an unbalanced external force - Second law: The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the force acting on it and inversely proportional to its mass a= F/M (acceleration = force / mass) - Third law: for every force there is another force of the same size in the opposite direction acting on another object Chapter 17 - explains motion really well Light Reflection: when light bounces off another object Transparent: light passes through objects and we can see objects through them Illumination: object being lit by either the object itself or from another source Computer Lab Week 2 Sandra Feedback scaffold: Value - things they need to change and adjust. Things they need to keep doing (this is what you should continue to do). Given in a way that you are prepared to hear it. Safe - not turned into an attack. Find something positive and let them know (that was a good idea, was interesting) Ask questions or clarification - Check that you are talking about the same things - make assumptions clear. Make it clear to the person reading your feedback what you are talking about as well. Express concern - I wonder, Perhaps you might like to, is it possible that (at the start of expressing concern). Offer a suggestion - Offer in a way thats kind and polite - I wonder if this might be a way to consider, in my experience, I've seen something similar. 1.5hrs per week to teach Science On check out the Rationale and Organisation tabs. Can access the Science shape paper from the ACARA website. For discussion point, pick a strand under the acara document Science Inquiry: Help Students Learn Fact or opinion: Science games help further student education. Lecture 4 Physics - Models to teaching - discussion post 1 is kind of relevant "I would teach this topic in this way" Discussion post 2 - here is a particular topic and here is how I will teach it. Not a single lesson - 2 or 3 lesson sequence. Models of Science Learning / Teaching Since 80's emphasis has been on learning - teaching has taken a back seat Helping students to develop and understand design concepts 5E's used in the primary connections materials. Intended to help primary teachers teach science better / at all (Australian Academy of Science (AAS) Originated with Roger Bybees team at the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) 5E's Engage Engaging the students attention. Focus them on this topic. Demonstration experiment, where there is no expected result. What happened, why, how can you improve your explanation Students will ask questions - why does it happen etc. KWL(H) - What do we Know, what do we Want to know, what we have Learned and How do we know (Evidence). Explore Gives the students time to think/investigate/test/make decisions and collect evidence. Performa an investigation. Explain Students explain first. Understanding is clarified through a reflective activity. Initially students explain, not teacher. Explain to each other and teacher last. Elaborate Expands and solidifies students thinking and/or applies to a real world situation. Things we process multiple times will stick. Working with the concept. Higher order thinking. Evaluate Make judgements about their own knowledge and the teacher to assess them. 3 evaluations for a sequence. Peer assessment. Self assessment. - Students of themselves (make judgements - do I understand this) - Teachers of the students (grades, do they know etc) - Students making judgements of the teacher Usually fairly linear, start at the beginning - but can be jumped around What do students need to do to understand a new concept - constructivist. These teaching models are useful, but not the truth. Don't have to use them all the time. Useful tools. Three stages model Model used in the textbook Simpler than the 5Es Outlined in chapter 2 Focuses on Children's talk and conceptual development ** Lesson plans what STUDENTS Will do Exploratory stage Students will try out their own ideas (children talk) Shares features with the engage and explore phases Re-describing stage Conception and misconceptions - what do they already know before starting. Children science - children have already developed explanations for things. Children need to be able understand it, must be plausible and seen to be fruitful Experiments are done by children Application stage Try out through activities and experiments Models are useful, but use the right tool for the job. Learning to teach involves developing a repertoire of models and teaching strategies. Teaching involves making professional judgements about what tool is appropriate. 4 states of matter (normally 3 states - solid, liquid and gas) Solid Liquid Gas Plasma is the most common state of mass if it is not empty space. State of matter at extreme heat (or electricity fields) when electrons are ripped off the atom. Nature of Matter in the syllabus - Year 3 (not gasses) - solids and liquids - How they respond to changes in temp - The particle model is NOT used to explain these phenomena - PET is a meltable substance - Year 5 - solids, liquids and gasses - relating state and temperature - Same issues as year 3 The particle model does not appear anywhere in Australian curriculum for primary. Particle model appears in Junior High. - Still a valuable concept, but too abstract for primary students. Materials are solid at low temp, liquid at medium and gas at high (with some exceptions) DIfferent materials have different melting and boiling points Water melts at 0 degrees and boils at 100 degrees Only 2 chemical elements are liquid at room temp - Br - Bromine (related to chlorine, brown and very strong smelling) - Hg - Mercury (silver liquid metal) Elements are 1 chemical element Compounds are 2 or more chemical elements Water is Hydrogen and Oxygen (is a compound) CO2 os a compound that is gas at room temp. Goes directly to solid state at -78 degrees. When melts, turns straight to a gas. All materials are made out of particles and chemicals. This is a big idea. EVERYTHING is made of chemicals. Liquids take the shape of a container that holds them A gas fills all of the available space (fill any closed container they are in) Everything is always vibrating in place Lecture 5 No lectures in week 10 or 11 (public holiday) Next week is the last of the content heavy lectures 44 people have posted on discussion 1 20 for post 2 Make a start on the discussion posts Only lab this week - no computer room Changing Materials Looking at the rest of chemistry - next week talking about energy Chemistry in the syllabus: Year 1 Material can be changed physically in a number of ways - Melting and freezing - Melting chocolate - Stretching rubber bands and see how they regain their shape Year 2 Different materials can be combined including mixing for a particular purpose - Combining diffferent materials for different purposes - Remaking and recycling Year 3 Changes of state - Solids to liquids to gas Year 4 Natural and processed materials have a range of physical properties - Glass is shiny metal is not - Select materials to be used based on their properties - Why do we use steel for these chairs rather than plastic - What is good about wood with laminate over it versus something else - Sustainability comes through (waste mgmt, pollution) Year 5 Changes of state Year 6 Reversibile and irreversible changes - What happens when we mix materials - Solubility - Recycling - Drink bottle (PET) Polyethelene-Terathelate can be melted and reshaped into a new bottle - material with a reversible change - Glass is recyclable in a different way, smash bottles - remelt and reshape Year 7 Combination of pure substances and separation techniques - Boiling off - Filtration - Decantation - Distillation to make spirits and perform chemistry Properties - Materials have properties - Chemical and Physical Protons and neutrons in the middle (nucleus), electrons orbiting on the outside Protons = positive Neutrons = neutral (zero charge) Electrons = negative Protons are same size and mass, different charges. Electrons leaves the atom or it gains more is where chemistry is focussed Water is an example of a chemical compound - contains hydrogen and oxygen Properties are what makes it appropriate for its purpose. What are the values and scientific properties of Changing properties and energy Materials that undergo changes has some kind of energy associated with it Melting, boiling, condensing etc Some chemical reactions take energy out of the environment Reversible changes - Meting and refreezing something - Dissolve salt in water, boil water away and be left with salt - Hammar metal into a flat sheet, you could hammer it back into its original shape Irreversible Changes - If metal rusts away completely, it cannot be reformed -Burned wood cannot form the same piece of wood again - Many chemical reactions are very difficult to reverse without special conditions and large amounts of energy. Chemical and Physical changes is not a very good concept, better to talk about reversible and irreversible changes. Australian curriculum doesn't get into atomic level of things. There is value in going deeper - see the text book. Atoms - Nucleus in the middle - Cells are about 10 billion times bigger than atoms - all living things are made of cells - Everything is made of atoms - Atomic nucleus contains protons, neutrons and electrons - Electrons are about 10 thousand times smaller - Democritus first suggested atoms around 400BC (Philosophical perspective) If I take something and cut it in half, and then that in half - If I keep doing that does there eventually come a point when I can't cut any further -- Yes, there must be a smallest part. Called it 'A Tomas' - can't cut. - Aristotle disagreed and thought that things could be infinitely divided. - IDea of atoms didn't exist from 400 BC to 1800 AD - John Dalton (1800) did some experiments - Burned hydrogen and oxygen together, got simple proportion - This suggested to Dalton there were tiny particles making up things - JJ Thompson (UK) discovered the electron in 1897, and proposed a plumb pudding model - He suggested that the atom was a big sphere of positive charges with the electrons sitting inside it. - They didn't have a way to test, and his model is incorrect - Ernest Rutherford (New Zealand) discovered the nucleus is 1911 - Fired beams of alpha particles at a thin layer of gold foil. - Expected they would go straight through - Found some bounced back, went in all directions - Completely une
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