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PSY 2SOC (1)

Person Perception

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Art Stukas

Objectives  Be able to describe briefly how we from first impressions of others, referring to two stages  Be familiar with notions of “correspondent inference” and “correspondence bias”  Understand principle of accessibility  Understand how “considered impressions” are made and what people do with them once they are formed  Be able to explain briefly why first impressions are difficult to change  Be able to give an example of self-fulfilling prophecy The processes of impression formation 1. First impressions (superficial processing)  Are built very quickly  Rely on salient cues  Interpreting cues  Inferring personality from behaviour, appearance and demeanour 2. Considered impressions (systematic processing)  Causal attributions  Using attributions to correct first impressions  Forming complex impressions through integration  Various factors influence depth of processing in impression formation -Time to think -Knowledge  ability/resources - Distraction - You care about the issue  Motivation - You want to be accurate How carefully you process information providing implications on your impressions of others. Salient cues influence our impressions: What kids of cues are there? - Cues implying something about the persons group membership (i.e age, gender, occupation, ethnicity) - Cues that imply something specific about person(i.e clothing, hair style) - Physical appearance (i.e facial contour [baby faced], height, body size) - Verbal & non verbal behaviour (i.e emotion expression, hand movements, dialect) - The social context and context-person match (i.e lecturer rocking up in p.js) First impressions are about cues that are available to us and how they influence us. We make inferences about cues (associations) which allows us to form relationships amongst associations with are from knowledge based upon experience be it personal or not a sort of “culture” i.e. someone who has their sleeves rolled up may be enthusiastic or crude which could also be linked to being energetic. Personality is an outcome of impression formation. First impressions involve inferring personality from others behaviour. Correspondent inference  inferring personality from observed behaviour  We make inferences/attributes from behaviour Correspondence bias  making a correspondent inference even where doing so is unjustifiable According to Jones & Davis’ correspondent inference theory, correspondence inference is justifiable if 3 conditions are satisfied 1. Behaviour is based upon free will, intention and choice, therefore it was not seemingly coerced 2. Behaviour is associated with a unique motive – observers cant think of many potential reasons for the persons behaviour 3. Behaviour is atypical/unexpected It is suggested by Jones and Harris that people do not follow these rules in making inferences about others behaviours. Correspondence bias robust? Sometimes people attribute behaviour to situation rather than a persons disposition i.e a person leaving a cinema laughing people are more inclined to think this is due to the movie rather than being a joyful person. Correspondence bias is less prevalent in east Asia and south Asia potentially due to individuals in that culture considering a wider range of causes fore a behaviour such as social norms. Accessibility Somet
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