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Lecture 1

BIOL10004 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Dna Sequencing, Thymine, Guanine

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Lecture 1: Genetics: Variation and Genome
Genetics is the study of variation between and among living things, and how this variation is
Genotype: describes the genetic constitution of an organism. Comes from a parent if haploid* or
parents if diploid*. It’s fied uless u liig chia ith chrispa
Phenotype: describes the morphological, biochemical and behavioural properties of an organism
resulting from a specific genotype and its interaction with the environment. Influence look and
behaviour and mental health, enzyme and hormone production.
The total amount of genetic material in a chromosome set (In humans- one set of
The genetic material is DNA
Sequencing a genome is working out the base sequence (adenine, thymine, cytosine and
guanine) of the DNA
It does not tell the function of the sequence
There are 2 genomes. One in mitochondria and one in nucleolus
o Use of this sequence
Genome wise association sturdies GWAS
Involves rapidly scanning markers across the complete sets of DNAs, or
genomes, of many people to find genetic variations associated with a
Such studies are useful in finding genetic variations that contribute to
common, complex diseases, such as asthma, cancer, diabetes, heart disease
and mental illnesses
Variation can be:
Entirely genetics
o Example: Huntington disease
o Mutation in DNA result in the production of a toxic protein which degrades brain
Entirely environmental
o Example: fetal alcohol syndrome
A combination of above
o Fox
o hydrangea : same genotype influence by PH. Colour change with the acidity
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