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Lecture 1

BIOL10004 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Cambrian Explosion, Semipermeable Membrane, Extraterrestrial Life

1 Page
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Fall 2018

Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL10004
Professor
All
Lecture
1

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BIOL10004 Biology of Cells
MODULE 1: CELL BIOLOGY
LECTURE 1 WELCOME TO BIOLOGY
Generalisations:
1. Evolution through natural selection accounts for the animal kingdom’s diversity both the
similarities and differences
o Evolution = Unifying theory in biology
§ Earth has a long history
§ All living organisms arose from earlier, more primitive forms
§ Hence, all organisms share a common ancestor
o Natural selection:
§ Individuals in a species show a wide range of variation
§ Fitter individuals with characteristics best suited to the environment are more
likely to survive and reproduce to pass the genes on à DIFFERENTIAL
REPRODUCTION
§ Over time, species will evolve (differential reproduction)
o Origin of life is unknown but there are several theories:
§ Extra-terrestrial life life from another planet
§ Special/spontaneous creation by supernatural forces i.e. reducing
environment facilitated organic molecule formation (i.e. RNA)
2. Unity of Biochemical Processesall organisms share a common ancestor
o Hence, all organism shares certain biochemical reactions
o I.e. All organisms have genetic material (DNA) that contains instructions for how
organisms develop
o Organisms have proteins to carry out these specified instructions
3. The Cell theory all organisms consists of cells
o The cell is a bag/closed domain where the chemical reactions for life are carried out
o Surrounded by semi-permeable membrane
§ Allows movement of molecules in/out of cell (i.e. toxins out)
o Cell theory:
§ All living organisms are composed of cells
§ All cells come from pre-existing cells (no spontaneous generation of cells)
§ The cell = smallest organisational unit
Darwin’s Dilemma objections to his theory of evolution
Where were the first cell(s) in the fossil record?
o Stromatolites referred to as “living fossils”
o Has cyanobacteria on their surface à looks almost identical to modern day bacteria
o Complex cell types appear more recently
§ How did eukaryotic cells evolve from prokaryotic cells?
o Photosynthetic due to cyanobacteria within.
How to explain the Cambrian explosion?

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Description
BIOL10004 Biology of Cells MODULE 1: CELLBIOLOGY LECTURE 1 WELCOMETO BIOLOGY Generalisations: 1. Evolutionthroughnatural selectionaccounts for the animal kingdoms diversity both the similarities and differences o Evolution = Unifying theory in biology Earthhasalong history Allliving organisms arose from earlier, more primitiveforms Hence, all organisms share a common ancestor o Natural selection: Individuals ina species show a wide range of variation Fitter individuals withcharacteristics bestsuited tothe environmentare more likely tosurvive and reproduce to pass the genes on DIFFERENTIAL REPRODUCTION Over time, species willevolve (differential reproduction) o Origin of life is unknown but there are several theories: Extraterrestrial life lifefrom another planet Specialspontaneous creation by supernatural forces i.e. reducing environment facilitated organic molecule formation(i.e. RNA) 2. Unity of Biochemical Processes all organisms share acommon ancestor o Hence, all organismshares certain biochemical reactions o I.e. All organisms have genetic material (DNA) that contains instructions for how organisms develop o Organisms have proteins to carry out these specifiesructions 3. The Cell theory all organisms consists of cells o The cell is a bagclosed domain where the chemical reactions for life are carried out o Surrounded by semipermeable membrane Allows movementof molecules inoutof cell (i.e. toxins out) o Cell theory: Allliving organisms are composed of cells All cells come from preexisting cells (no spontaneous generation of cells) The cell = smallest organisational unit Darwins Dilemma objections to his theory of evolution Where were the first cell(s) in the fossil record? o Stromatolites referred to as living fossils o Has cyanobacteria on their surface looks almostidentical tomodernday bacteria o Complex cell types appearmore recently How did eukaryoticcells evolve from prokaryoticcells? o Photosynthetic due to cyanobacteria within. How to explain the Cambrian explosion?
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