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Lecture 10

BIO2242: Lecture 10 notes

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Monash University

BIO2242 – LECTURE 10 All animals have a circulatory system: True False This heart comes from which type of animal? Fish Turtle Elephant Budgie Both mammals and birds have 4 chambers. Fish have a single atrium and single ventricle Diffusion: It is the exchange of chemicals, which is a passive process. If you are small with a few cell layers in contact with the water, you can uptake materials directly from the environment. Circulatory systems: Circulatory systems are needed when diffusion distances become too big. For animals that are larger, and not flat and has a tubular gut that doesn’t distribute itself through the body. Insect = large amount of fluid inside (hemocoel), but it also has a pump, and vessels. Sinus = large space where liquid goes out of the vessels, where they squish around until it gets taken up. Cephalopod: They no longer have an open circulatory system. They have developed a fully closed on which is related to their high levels of activity. Advantage of open circulatory system is that when they have a large volume of liquid, its very hard to maintain pressure in a fast flow. Earthworm: Large body, so they have closed circulatory system, with a dorsal vessel. Vertebrate circulation: Fish = single circuit = have single atrium and single ventricle where it pump blood through gills, where gills change oxygen depleted blood into oxygen rich blood. Oxygenated blood flows from the gills to the rest of the body back to various capillary beds of muscles or guts or different parts of the body, where it then returns to the heart. Human = Double circuit = one dedicated to oxygen exchange (lungs), where we can enrich our blood with oxygen. And the other, which is the visceral circuit that passes through the rest of the body where we have blood being depleted from oxygen by various tissues. Our blood is red. Blue blood in humans = no oxygen Other animals = oxygenated blood is blue Single circuit blood flow – fish 2 chambered heart – single atrium and ventricle. Blood goes from A to V, where V provides the main pumping force for contraction and as a result, theres only one source of pressure (V), it means that the pressure is determined completely by that one chamber, and thus, the source of pressure is the same for the gills and the body. But the pressure decreases as it goes away from the heart. The pressure starts off very high in the gills, but then drops when it goes back into the body, and the heart. Double circuit blood flow – Amphibian/Reptilian: They have two separated circuits. One circuit goes to the lungs – starts off in the L atrium, the blood from the L atrium goes into the ventricle, and into the lungs, back into the L atrium and the blood from the rest of the body starts from the R atrium and goes to the ventricle, and comes back into the R atrium. They have a heart where there are two inputs, but there is only one ventricle, hence only a single pump. They can redistribute their blood stream as they can regulate what part of the blood goes into which exit tube, thus create differences b
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