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Lecture 15

BIO2242: Lecture 15 notes

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BIO2242 – lecture 15 What is reproduction: The process at which animals go off to produce offsprings. It is the core goal or focus of life. Natural selection works quite intensely on reproductive strategies. Modes of animal reproduction: Asexual reproduction: Absence of sex. Haploid gametes fusing to form a diploid zygote (Agametic) Asexual reproduction: Gametes are formed but they are not fertilized (Parthenogenesis) Why be asexual: Much better at producing a lot of offsprings quickly. What animals can be asexual: Genetic imprinting = tell whether genes are from mother or father Asexual reproduction: Does not involve the fusion of haploid gametes Is energetically expensive as it requires searching for a male Is common in birds and mammals Does not facilitate the rapid spread of successful genotypes Agametic reproduction: Fission: Where parent individual splits into two (fission). The two daughter are equal in size. It is equivalent to cell division. Agametic reproduction: Budding: You get an outgrowth of the parent individual where it buds off and forms its own individual. Through this process, the offspring is smaller in size than the parent. Agametic reproduction: Fragmentation: Splice and dice body parts where they regenerate into complete individuals – not always, but they can. Budding is: Where new individuals regenerate from fragments of the parent A form of asexual reproduction where the parent and offspring are equal in size Where new individuals arise from outgrowths in existing ones Common in vertebrates Parthenogenesis: It is extremely rare in nature. Advantage = When there’s no males around the females, they can still reproduce. In good conditions, it can reprodu
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