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Lecture 12

BIO2242: Lecture 12 notes

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BIO2242 – Lecture 12 The autonomic nervous system is a part of the CNS? True False = Belongs to PNS In the nervous system information is transmitted in what aspect of AP? Amplitude Duration Frequency Wave form The reflex: Sensory neuron that sits inside the muscle, which causes your leg to jerk. Stretch receptor inside muscle detects sudden change inside the muscle. How senses work: They have to transmit relevant information. Sensory organs transform energy upon them into chemical messages, then electrical signals, where they are sent to the CNS. Stimulus-response: Need to be able to detect a particular signal by a cell, where it is transduced into an electrical signal, that can be passed onto the CNS. It then has to be amplified and transmitted to the CNS, integrated in the brain, where it then leads to a response. Transduction: Transduction is the change from whatever the stimulus is into the basic language of the CNS, which is AP. Translate energy first into chemical messages. Sensory cell types: We can have a neuron that sits in the periphery that has a receptor membrane that creates receptor potentials, where AP are then created. Or we can have a long dendrite, and the cell body is sitting in the CNS. We can also have sensory cells that are not neurons themselves - they can’t generate AP themselves. Instead they transmit neurotransmitters, where the primary sensory neurons coming from the CNS is the one that generates the spikes and sends it back to the nervous system. Olfaction: Small molecules on land, as they have to be evaporated. Adaptations for sex pheromones: Male moths are able to detect females from a long distance away. There are tiny molecules in the air, and they have built these sieve-like antennae to capture all the molecules if they can. Females don't need to do this, so they have a lesser large SA on their antennae. Olfactory epithelium: Odors evaporate from our food, whic
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