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Lecture 7

BIO2242: Lecture 7 notes

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BIO2242 – LECTURE 7 Frogs are carnivores, but what can tadpoles eat? Algae Invertebrates Detritus Any of the above What do animals eat?: Plant material: Primary consumers, so they eat live plant materials Animal material: Omnivores: primary = plant secondary = herbivores tertiary = carnivores scavengers = dead material Trophic structure: Eltonian pyramid Primary producers takes sunlight to make energy for them to consume. Primary consumer eats plant materials for energy So much more biomass at primary producer level. Biomass decreases as you go up the trophic level. When you eat an animal or plant material, you can’t convert all 100% of it into energy. Assimilation efficiency = being able to break down the material for energy. Plant material as food: Vegetation: Leaves, twigs, or structural component of the plant Fruits, nectar, seeds, exudates: Patchily distributed = only found in various places at different time Vertebrate digestive tract: Headgut = head, mouth, mechanical digestion Foregut = stomach, used for storage, maceration (add fluid for softening) Midgut = digestion and absorption Hindgut = complete digestion, absorb water and electrolytes Fish – Osteichthyes: Carnivores: Short intestine as digestion doesn’t take that long Amphibians: Larvae can have diverse feeding ranges. But in adults, they are carnivores where they tend to swallow prey whole, so they need a large stomach to take their food in. They have a very simple digestive system. Reptiles: Theres a range of dietary requirements. The teeth becomes more complex as it goes towards herbivores, but carnivorous species are larger in number than herbivorous ones. They have a large stomach, with a relatively short midgut and hindgut (C ). They have additional outpocketing between mid and hind gut (H). Birds: Muscular stomach that can consume stones. Use muscle to grind stones and plant materials within it = gizzard Frugivores = eat fruit or seeds Hawk = very simple DS. Small midgut and hindgut. Granivore = short hindgut and
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