BIO2242 – LECTURE 7
Frogs are carnivores, but what can tadpoles eat?
Any of the above
What do animals eat?:
Primary consumers, so they eat live plant materials
primary = plant
secondary = herbivores
tertiary = carnivores
scavengers = dead material
Primary producers takes sunlight to make energy for them to consume.
Primary consumer eats plant materials for energy
So much more biomass at primary producer level.
Biomass decreases as you go up the trophic level.
When you eat an animal or plant material, you can’t convert all 100% of it into
energy. Assimilation efficiency = being able to break down the material for
Plant material as food:
Leaves, twigs, or structural component of the plant
Fruits, nectar, seeds, exudates:
Patchily distributed = only found in various places at different time
Vertebrate digestive tract:
Headgut = head, mouth, mechanical digestion
Foregut = stomach, used for storage, maceration (add fluid for softening)
Midgut = digestion and absorption
Hindgut = complete digestion, absorb water and electrolytes
Fish – Osteichthyes:
Short intestine as digestion doesn’t take that long
Larvae can have diverse feeding ranges. But in adults, they are carnivores where
they tend to swallow prey whole, so they need a large stomach to take their food
in. They have a very simple digestive system. Reptiles:
Theres a range of dietary requirements. The teeth becomes more complex as it
goes towards herbivores, but carnivorous species are larger in number than
herbivorous ones. They have a large stomach, with a relatively short midgut and
hindgut (C ).
They have additional outpocketing between mid and hind gut (H).
Muscular stomach that can consume stones. Use muscle to grind stones and plant
materials within it = gizzard
Frugivores = eat fruit or seeds
Hawk = very simple DS. Small midgut and hindgut.
Granivore = short hindgut and