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Lecture 11

BMS1021:Cells, tissues and organisms: Lecture 11,12 & 13

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Monash University
Biomedical Sciences
John Bertram

Lecture 11: - Gas exchange is fast when the area for diffusion is large and the path for diffusion is short - Respiratory surfaces tend to be large and thin - Animals without respiratory organs are small: (surface / volume ratio) Tracheal system in insects: - System of tubes - Limited transport capacity - Ventilation through body compression of air sacs - Gas exchange occurs by diffusion In true lungs air is filtered, warmed and saturated. - Gas exchange only takes place in the alveoli - O2 dissolves in surfactant - Diffuses across the epithelium into the blood and CO2 goes in the opposite direction Lung volume of mammals nearly isometric with body size (5% of body volume) How a mammal breathes: Negative pressure breathing - change in volume of thoracic cavity - diaphragm Breathing is regulated by CO /2H: pH: blood CO2 regulates pH of cerebrospinal fluid Lecture 12: Functions of Blood:  transport of nutrients, waste, gases, cells, heat  hydraulic transmission of force  Coagulation (forming clots)  Maintenance of cell environment Erythrocytes (Red Blood Cells: RBC): Function:  Contain 250 million haemoglobin molecules  Carry 1 billion oxygen molecules  No nucleus  No mitochondria- anaerobic metabolism  Control negative feedback (oxygen levels) in tissue Sickle cell Anaemia: - Deformed RBC’s - Blocks capillaries - Cell rupture - Less oxygen binding Thrombocytes (Platelets): - Short lifespan - Small cell fragments (1/3 of RBC size) - Too many result in blood clots (thrombosis) Leucocytes (white blood cells): - Involved in immunity and defence - Five types o Basophils: histamine/ allergies o Eosinophils: attacks parasites o Neutrophils: Phagocytose bacteria
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