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Lecture 14

BMS1021:Cells, tissues and organisms: Lecture 14, 15 & 16

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Monash University
Biomedical Sciences
John Bertram

Lecture 14: Eumetazoa animals possess true tissues Cnidarians: - have a radially symmetrical body plan - diploblastic which means they have two germ (cell) layers - are carnivorous and use tentacles (armed with cnidocysts) to catch their prey - gastrovascular cavity is used for digestion (mouth/anus same) - Oxygen and waste are diffused across body (no organs necessary for these tasks Bilaterian animals: - have bilateral symmetry and triploblastic development (3 germ layers) Platyhelminthes: - Members of this phylum known as flatworms - Bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic (three germ layers) and are acoelomates - Flatworms have a gastrovascular cavity but lack respiratory and circulatory systems The pseudocoelom: Plays an important role in circulation, excretion, and movement Arthropods: - Body plan consists of a segmented body, hard exoskeleton, and jointed appendages. - body of an arthropod is completely covered by the cuticle - an exoskeleton made of layers of protein and the polysaccharide chitin Advantages of an exoskeleton: o rigid support for muscles o protection o hard jaws Disadvantages of an exoskeleton: - that arthropods must moult to grow which is energy costly and dangerous - places a limit on the maximum size an arthropod can grow Lecture 15: Echinoderms: - Slow moving - Unique vascular system = a network of hydraulic canals branching into tube feet that function in locomotion, feeding and gas exchange. Chordates: Four key characters of chordates: • Notochord • Dorsal, hollow nerve cord • Pharyngeal slits • Muscular, post-anal tail: for movement Notochord: - longitudinal, flexible rod between the digestive tube and nerve cord - It provides skeletal support throughout most of the length of a chordate Dorsal hollow nerve cord: nerve cord develops into the central nervous system: the brain and the spinal cord Pharyngeal slits: - Opening in pharynx - Suspension feeding structures (invertebrate chordates) - Gas exchange (fish) - Develop into parts of the ear, neck and head (tetrapods) Development of jaws: - Evolution of
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