BMS2011: Anatomy: Lecture 2&3

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Biomedical Sciences
Colin Mc Henry

Lecture 2: 4 major tissue types: 1- Epithelial 2- Connective 3- Muscular 4- Nervous Mechanisms are things that maintain shape, allow movement and power that movement through division into: - Rigid components – frame of bicycle , a swing-set’s black frames - Tensile components – ropes on the swing-set (can move around flexibly but if pulled tight they can provide support - Compliant components – tyres on bicycle Rigid materials resist tension, compression and shear very well. When loads are tensile you don’t need rigid material, you can substitute with a tensile member which is more efficient. E.g. ligaments Passive tensile members: resist tension Active tensile members: resist tension and produce tensile loads In MSK: Rigid material- bone, cartilage Passive tensile – tendons, ligaments, fascia Active tensile – muscle Before we have a bony skeleton we have a cartilaginous skeleton: made of HYALINE cartilage. Most turns to bone but some still exist: knee (articular surfaces), nasal cavity, every synovial joint, costal cartilage (in between ribs). FIBROCARTILAGE: - Intervertebral discs: spine - Articular discs: e.g. jaw - Labra: extra bits on outside of hip joint and shoulder joint - Menisci: in knee Yellow (FLEXIBLE) Cartilage is about 50% collagen and proteoglycans (sugar protein substances) and ground substance – gelatinous sugary kind of material - Cartilage is not very well vascularised: implications – doesn’t heal as well Bone as a tissue: - Compact - Spongy - Medullary canal in long bones Bone does not grow interstitially; it grows appositionally (on a surface in which it can “appose” another structure). Osteoblasts: make bone Osteocytes: maintain bone Osteoclasts: remove bone Surface features of a bone Mechanical properties of bone: Rigid material, strong in tension, compression and shear Because it’s a composite rigid material, it is very good at resisting tension. Tendons: - Composed of bundles of collagen fibres  fascicles - Bundles are aligned - Small amount of elastin Ligaments: - Contain bundles of collagen - Bundles vary in direction - Compared with tendons – have more proteoglycan matrix and less collagen - Important at joints; the tensile material in ligaments is holding bones in place Note: ligaments are shock absorbers connecting bone to bone. Tendons are an anchoring point connecting muscle to bone. Joints: Rigid – fibrous (e.g. hip) Slightly mobile – cartilaginous (e.g. pubic symphysis) Lecture 3 notes: Types of joints: - Spheroidal: 3 axes of motion- 6 movements e.g. glenohumeral joint (shoulder) - Hinge: 1 axis of motion – 2 movements e.g. humero-ulna joint (elbow)
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