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Lecture 6

BMS2011: Anatomy: Lecture 6, 7 & 8

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Monash University
Biomedical Sciences
Colin Mc Henry

Lecture 6 notes: Knee joint is largest synovial joint in the body and is mainly controlled by soft tissue: 1. Menisci 2. Cruciate ligaments 3. Joint capsule + synovium 4. Collateral ligaments 5. Popliteal ligaments + polpiteus m. 6. Patella, tendon, retinaculae 7. Other muscles that cross joint (hamstrings, Sartorius, gracilis, gastrocnemius + plantaris, illiotibial tract) 8. Bursae Why is the medial collateral ligament larger than the lateral collateral ligament? - Hip joint is much further apart from the midline than the knee joints - Femur is angled down to angle of hip joint - Tibia and fibula are basically straight - It tends to tip to one side so we need a tensional member to stop the joint from collapsing (same for medial collateral ligament in ankle) Muscles act by causing: tensional forces only i.e. PULLING Aponeurosis: tendon which is flat Tendon – connects muscle to bone Upright biped: - Long legs - Modified foot with non-opposable hallux (big toe) - Hyperextended knees: further exposing knee to damage - Large gluteus maximum - Short hips - Short forearms: we don’t pull things apart very often - short face - narrow trunk The human foot is based on the structure of the hand Recovery of lost energy during locomotion is due to the arching of the foot Lecture 7 notes Segmentation provides us with more flexibility and mobility Ventral rami will supply anterior joint/muscle/skin of the trunk and limbs Dorsal rami will supply posterior joint/muscle/skin of the trunk Homo sapiens: - Upright stance - Bipedal gait - Skull - S-shaped spine with alternating curvature because we stand upright and need to support body weight. The curvature allows for greater shock absorption. Axial skeleton: Bony components are the: - Vertebral column - Ribs and sternum - Skull Organisation of the vertebral column: - Stiffened rod - Provides basis for movement when axial (trunk) muscles work on it - Basic movement is wriggling - Division of the rod into individual vertebrae that articulate  flexibility for movement Vertebral column needs to be able to resist compression (formed from cartilage and bone) Vertebrae: - Shape of body (centrum) is cylindrical - Dorsal (neural) arch that protects the spinal cord - Spinous and transverse processes: o Provide sites for ligament and muscle attachments o Increase leverage that muscles can exert on the intravertebral joints - Articular processes: o Have facets oriented in a particular plane o Control and limit unwanted movement and forces images/thoracic_vert_labeled_400x230-AA.jpg Inferior articular process of a vertebra makes a joint with the superior articulating process of the vertebra below it. Cervical vertebra: a hole through each transverse process allowing arteries to pass through to carry blood to the brain Thoracic vertebra: small hollows in the processes and body into which a pair of ribs fit Lumbar vertebra: large body supports major part of the body weight. Articular processes facilitate movement. Intervertebral disc has fluid inside called the nucleus palposis, the vertebral bodies can roll in any direction without restriction however the facet joints keep them aligned to control unwanted movement between vertebrae. Axial muscles: - Hypaxial muscles: muscles located ventral (front) to the transverse processes and include muscles of the abdominal and thoracic wall. Action: Flex the vertebral column. Nerve supply: ventral rami of spinal nerves. - Epaxial muscles: muscles that lies dorsal (behind) to the transverse processes of the vertebrae. Actions: extend the vertebral column. Nerve supply Dorsal
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