Cell migration is a central process in the development and maintenance of
multicellular organisms. Tissue formation during embryonic development,
wound healing and immune responses all require the orchestrated movement of
cells in particular directions to specific locations. Errors during this process have
serious consequences, including mental retardation, vascular disease, tumor
formation and metastasis.
Cells often migrate in response to specific external signals, including chemical
signals and mechanical signals. Due to the highly viscous environment, cells need
to permanently produce forces in order to move.
Cell adhesion is the binding of a cell to a surface, such as an extracellular matrix
or another cell, using cell adhesion molecules like selectins, integrins, or
cadherins. [1Cellular adhesion is essential in maintaining multicellular structure.
Cellular adhesion can link the cytoplasm of cells and can be involved in signal
The gut is an endoderm-derived structure. At approximately the sixteenth day of
human development, the embryo begins to fold ventrally (with the embryo's