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Lecture 4

DEV2022: Lecture 4 notes

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DEV2022 – integumental lecture 4 Glands: Sweat glands = secrete a watery substance Sebaceous glands = secrete oily protective substance Apocrine = found in selective areas on the skin These glands are derived from the epidermis and are linked to the epidermis by a duct, which can be very long/short. In terms of the sweat glands, the duct terminates a coiled arrangement of epithelial cells (hollow lumen inside) and each one of these glands can duplicate, renew or regenerate in itself because they all contain stem cells. The ectoderm is layered on top The mesoderm becomes the dermis Deep to that is a layer of fat = superficial fascia And deep to that could be deep fascia or muscle Within the dermis, we find many neurovascular and lymphatic structures There are sensory receptors scattered through the dermis. It is within the dermis where we find glands that are derived from the surface epithelium. Skin structure + tension lines: Skin has a protective mechanical function. It is an organ that responds to the external environment because has sensory nerve receptors. It is responsible for vitamin D production, which is essential for bone health. Skin also thermoregulates which causes us to sweat in a way for us to cool down. Epidermis: It is a stratified epithelium. Typically for an epithelium structure that regenerates, the basal layer (layer on the bottom) contains the stem cells. They divide and mature and they rise up through the epithelium which is then recognized by us by having different cell types. Ectoderm: Germinal cells = they keep proliferating and are residents along the basal aspect Spinous cells = because the cells are tightly bound to eachother by intercellular junctions. The cells keep differentiating and they do two things: they start to synthesise keratin type proteins in the cytoplasm which starts to become protective on the upper layer, and the cells lose almost all their organelles, including their nucleus, which is why keratin plaques are no longer cells Skin pigmentation: In animals, the protective cells reside within the epidermis and they are known as the melanocytes. The melanocytes do not belong to the skin’s ectoderm or the skin’s mesoderm, they are derived from the neural crest. From the neural crest, a population that is destined to be melanocytes migrate to the epithelium and by proliferation b
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