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ATS1282 (18)
Lecture 5


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Monash University
General Education Studies
Asher Flynn

Globalisation Traditional crime  Crime has tended to be local in nature. o Occurring within country, state borders.  The responsibility of combating crime is local in nature. o Laws are local in nature. o Are policed locally. o Punishment occurs locally. Changes in crime  Global and local responses e.g. the end of the human rights treaty (global); how we immediately deal with boat people when they arrive (local).  Global and local impact e.g. local policies about how and when people smuggling is dealt with.  International law.  Jurisdiction.  Political.  Human rights.  Crime. Globalisation  The growing interconnectedness of states and societies and the progressive enmeshment of human communities with each other. o We’re getting closer and able to interact with people more readily and create stronger bonds than we used to. o We participate more socially and culturally with each other rather than just saying hi and bye, etc. o Engaging more.  Scholte (2000) suggests 5 definitions: *fill in* o Internationalisation. o Liberalisation – opening up of borders and markets around the world.  Can cause criminalisation to arise. o Universalisation. o Westernisation/modernisation. o Deterritorialisation.  Borders disappearing.  Powerful states being able to push certain agendas and overpower unpowerful states.  Space-Time compression: o Increased speed of communication and movement of ideas, information, capital and people.  Easier and quicker to do things.  The world is smaller and we can do things easier and quicker.  E.g. through the internet. Globalisation and crime  The concept of crime is shifting due to: o Changes in technology.  Types of crime we worry about and the way we police. o Changes in communication.  E.g. phone taps. o Changes in transportation/mobility.  Increase in use of certain types. o Shift towards free-market economies.  Particularly organised crimes can flourish in different areas where the policing or government regulation isn’t as strong.  Crime can cross multiple nation states.  Policing and prosecuting is now a global process. Globalisation and transnational crime  Transnational crime – crime that place across a national border.  Crimes that can be: o Committed in more than one country. o Cross borders. o Or see criminals benefit in another country.  E.g. human trafficking, illegally crossing a border.  Why they’re important to discuss: o The consequences of globalisation in relation to crime and criminal justice.  How we perceive these crimes and what we do with them.  What impact they might have on other places/  Where the influence is coming from. o The activities are not always designated as illegal but often fall within the broader concept of social harm. o Usually involve powerful actors.  Global inequalities have bred crime in some regions;  Inequality has seen transnational crime thrive;  Passas (1998) argues that global inequalities (North/South; East/West) have: o Increased demand for illegal goods/services. o Increased incentives to participate in illegal transactions. o Reduced the ability to police illegal activity.  Regions of chaos recognise our (region of order) need for weapons, drugs, etc and bring it to us and we pay for it. o We can create some order by eliminating the incentive and buying/policing it instead.  Considered a growing and significant problem; o Annual turnover of transnational organized criminal activities is estimated at around $870 billion (UNODC);  Australian nationals are increasingly more frequently involved in crimes both as victims or accused in other countries;  Nationals from other countries more often accused of or victims of crime in Australia .  Impact on criminal justice: o As a result of the increasing prevalence of transnational crime there has been:  Greater attention required by the international community towards transnational crime;  The growing need for international cooperation between states;  As a consequence there is greater conflict and complexity issues between states.  Policing transnational crime: o Significant resources spent on controlling transnational crime:  Increases to police powers.  Policed by international organisations such as EUROPOL & Interpol. o Focus largely on cross-border crime as transnational organized criminal activity:  Drug & human trafficking.  Money laundering.  Smuggling of artefacts such as ivory, & legal goods cigarettes etc. o Interpol:  “World police”: 188 member countries.  Provides communications network for info sharing.  Maintain databases and co-ordinate meetings with member countries.  Provides support to local police during disasters and major crimes.  Not empowered to enforce the law.  Key issues: o Increasingly punitive criminal justice domestically.  Increases in imprisonment. o Growing international cooperation between states combating transnational crime. o Growing international attention to transnational crime as well as war crimes and crimes against humanity. o Increased corporate involvement in criminal justice. o Old crime: New ways  People trafficking.  Drug smuggling.  Terrorism.  Arms smuggling.  Money-laundering.  Animal trafficking. New opportunities: New crimes  Cyber crimes.  Financing terrorism.  Global terrorism.  Environmental crime. Terrorism  Legal definition: o The Criminal Code Act 1995 o Defines a terrorist act as ‘an action or threat of action’ with the intention of: o advancing a political, religious or ideological cause; and o coercing, or influencing by intimidation, the government of the Commonwealth, State or Territory or the government of a foreign country or intimidating the public or a section of the public.  Action will not be a terroris
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