Crime has tended to be local in nature.
o Occurring within country, state borders.
The responsibility of combating crime is local in nature.
o Laws are local in nature.
o Are policed locally.
o Punishment occurs locally.
Changes in crime
Global and local responses e.g. the end of the human rights treaty (global);
how we immediately deal with boat people when they arrive (local).
Global and local impact e.g. local policies about how and when people
smuggling is dealt with.
The growing interconnectedness of states and societies and the
progressive enmeshment of human communities with each other.
o We’re getting closer and able to interact with people more readily
and create stronger bonds than we used to.
o We participate more socially and culturally with each other rather
than just saying hi and bye, etc.
o Engaging more.
Scholte (2000) suggests 5 definitions: *fill in*
o Liberalisation – opening up of borders and markets around the
Can cause criminalisation to arise.
Powerful states being able to push certain agendas and
overpower unpowerful states.
o Increased speed of communication and movement of ideas,
information, capital and people.
Easier and quicker to do things.
The world is smaller and we can do things easier and
E.g. through the internet.
Globalisation and crime The concept of crime is shifting due to:
o Changes in technology.
Types of crime we worry about and the way we police.
o Changes in communication.
E.g. phone taps.
o Changes in transportation/mobility.
Increase in use of certain types.
o Shift towards free-market economies.
Particularly organised crimes can flourish in different areas
where the policing or government regulation isn’t as strong.
Crime can cross multiple nation states.
Policing and prosecuting is now a global process.
Globalisation and transnational crime
Transnational crime – crime that place across a national border.
Crimes that can be:
o Committed in more than one country.
o Cross borders.
o Or see criminals benefit in another country.
E.g. human trafficking, illegally crossing a border.
Why they’re important to discuss:
o The consequences of globalisation in relation to crime and
How we perceive these crimes and what we do with them.
What impact they might have on other places/
Where the influence is coming from.
o The activities are not always designated as illegal but often fall
within the broader concept of social harm.
o Usually involve powerful actors.
Global inequalities have bred crime in some regions;
Inequality has seen transnational crime thrive;
Passas (1998) argues that global inequalities (North/South; East/West)
o Increased demand for illegal goods/services.
o Increased incentives to participate in illegal transactions.
o Reduced the ability to police illegal activity.
Regions of chaos recognise our (region of order) need for weapons, drugs,
etc and bring it to us and we pay for it.
o We can create some order by eliminating the incentive and
buying/policing it instead.
Considered a growing and significant problem;
o Annual turnover of transnational organized criminal activities
is estimated at around $870 billion (UNODC);
Australian nationals are increasingly more frequently involved in crimes
both as victims or accused in other countries;
Nationals from other countries more often accused of or victims of crime
in Australia .
Impact on criminal justice: o As a result of the increasing prevalence of transnational crime
there has been:
Greater attention required by the international community
towards transnational crime;
The growing need for international cooperation between
As a consequence there is greater conflict and complexity
issues between states.
Policing transnational crime:
o Significant resources spent on controlling transnational crime:
Increases to police powers.
Policed by international organisations such as EUROPOL &
o Focus largely on cross-border crime as transnational organized
Drug & human trafficking.
Smuggling of artefacts such as ivory, & legal goods
“World police”: 188 member countries.
Provides communications network for info sharing.
Maintain databases and co-ordinate meetings with member
Provides support to local police during disasters and major
Not empowered to enforce the law.
o Increasingly punitive criminal justice domestically.
Increases in imprisonment.
o Growing international cooperation between states combating
o Growing international attention to transnational crime as well as
war crimes and crimes against humanity.
o Increased corporate involvement in criminal justice.
Old crime: New ways
New opportunities: New crimes
Environmental crime. Terrorism
o The Criminal Code Act 1995
o Defines a terrorist act as ‘an action or threat of action’ with the
o advancing a political, religious or ideological cause; and
o coercing, or influencing by intimidation, the government of the
Commonwealth, State or Territory or the government of a foreign
country or intimidating the public or a section of the public.
Action will not be a terroris