People’s typical ways of thinking, feeling & behaving. (mental functioning/system)
Relatively enduring predisposition that influences our behaviour across many situations
Determinism (psychic determinism)
The assumption that all psychological events have a cause
“not being free to chose our actions”
Id (unconscious force)
Reservoir of our most primitive impulses, including sex and aggression
Tendency of the id to strive for immediate gratification
The word NO is not in the id’s vocabulary
Psyche’s executive and principal decision maker
Interacting with real world and finding ways to resolve the competing demands of other
When danger arises, ego experiences anxiety.
Strives to delay gratification until it can find an appropriate outlet.
Our sense of morality
Psychic that is like a judgemental parent looking down upon the ego.
Contains the sense of right & wrong. Defense mechanism
Unconscious maneuvers intended to minimize anxiety.
Forgetting of emotionally threatening memories/ impulses (internal)
“forgetting because we want to forget”
Forgetting of external experiences
Act of returning psychologically to a younger age (early childhood) when life was simpler and
Transformation of an anxiety-provoking emotion into its opposite
Unconscious attribution of our negative characteristics to others.
Deep down they want to hurt others but they can’t so they perceive others wanting to harm
Directing an impulse from a socially unacceptable target onto a safer and more socially
EG: Punching bag
Providing a reasonable sounding explanation for unreasonable behaviours/failures
Transforming a socially unacceptable impulse into an admiring goal
Sexual arousing zone of the body Oral stage
Psychosexual stage that focuses on the mouth
Psychosexual stage that focuses on the toilet training
Psychosexual stage that focuses on the genitals
EG: powerful attraction to opposite sex parent and also desire to eliminate same sex parent.
Finding opposite sex to be yucky and utterly unappealing
12- sexual impulses reawaken
Begin to mature into romantic attraction towards others
Traumatic experiences have a strong effect on the developing personality
Difficulty in any stage of development
Theories derived from Freuds model, but have placed less emphasis on sexuality as a driving
force in personality
They still believed in unconscious influence and the importance of early experience in
Social learning theories
Theorists who emphasize thinking as a cause of personality
Reciprocal determinism Tendency for people to mutually influence each others behaviour
Locus of control
Extent to which people believe that punishers lie inside/outside of their