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Personality Personality  People’s typical ways of thinking, feeling & behaving. (mental functioning/system) Trait  Relatively enduring predisposition that influences our behaviour across many situations Determinism (psychic determinism)  The assumption that all psychological events have a cause  “not being free to chose our actions” Id (unconscious force)  Reservoir of our most primitive impulses, including sex and aggression Pleasure principle  Tendency of the id to strive for immediate gratification  The word NO is not in the id’s vocabulary Ego  Psyche’s executive and principal decision maker  Interacting with real world and finding ways to resolve the competing demands of other psychic’s.  When danger arises, ego experiences anxiety. Reality principle  Strives to delay gratification until it can find an appropriate outlet. Super ego  Our sense of morality  Psychic that is like a judgemental parent looking down upon the ego.  Contains the sense of right & wrong. Defense mechanism  Unconscious maneuvers intended to minimize anxiety. Repression  Forgetting of emotionally threatening memories/ impulses (internal)  “forgetting because we want to forget” Denial  Forgetting of external experiences Regression  Act of returning psychologically to a younger age (early childhood) when life was simpler and safer. Reaction formation  Transformation of an anxiety-provoking emotion into its opposite Projection  Unconscious attribution of our negative characteristics to others.  Deep down they want to hurt others but they can’t so they perceive others wanting to harm them. Displacement  Directing an impulse from a socially unacceptable target onto a safer and more socially acceptable target  EG: Punching bag Rationalisation  Providing a reasonable sounding explanation for unreasonable behaviours/failures Sublimation  Transforming a socially unacceptable impulse into an admiring goal  EG: fireman Erogenous zone  Sexual arousing zone of the body Oral stage  Psychosexual stage that focuses on the mouth  Birth-18 months  EG: sucking/biting Anal stage  Psychosexual stage that focuses on the toilet training  18-3/4 years  EG: anus Phallic stage  Psychosexual stage that focuses on the genitals  3-4-6-7 years  EG: powerful attraction to opposite sex parent and also desire to eliminate same sex parent. Latency stage  6-12 years  Finding opposite sex to be yucky and utterly unappealing Genital stage  12- sexual impulses reawaken  Begin to mature into romantic attraction towards others Fixation  Traumatic experiences have a strong effect on the developing personality  Difficulty in any stage of development Neo-Freudian theories  Theories derived from Freuds model, but have placed less emphasis on sexuality as a driving force in personality  They still believed in unconscious influence and the importance of early experience in shaping personality. Social learning theories  Theorists who emphasize thinking as a cause of personality Reciprocal determinism  Tendency for people to mutually influence each others behaviour Locus of control  Extent to which people believe that punishers lie inside/outside of their
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