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Biological Psychology.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY1011
Professor
Various
Semester
Fall

Description
Biological Psychology Neuron  Nerve cell specialized for communication Dendrite  Portion of neuron that receives signals  Listen in on info from neighbouring neurons and pass it on to the cell body Axon  Portion of neuron that sends signals Synaptic vesicle  In axon  spherical sac containing neurotransmitters Neurotransmitter  In synaptic vesicle  Chemical messenger specialized for communication from neuron to neuron Synapse  Space between 2 connecting neurons through which messages are transmitted chemically  Neurotransmitter travels here Glial cell  Cell that plays a role in the formation of myelin & the blood brain barrier, responds to injury, removes debris and enhances learning and memory Myelin sheath  Glial cells wrapped around axons that act as insulators of the neruon’s signal Resting potential  Electrical charge difference across the neuronal membrane, when neuron is not being stimulated or inhibited  When there are no neurotransmitters acting on the neuron Action potential  Electrical impulse that travels down the axon triggering the release of neurotransmitters Absolute refractory period  Time during which another action potential is impossible, limits maximal firing rate.  Interval where another action potential cannot occur Reuptake  Way of recycling neurotransmitters Neural plasticity  Nervous systems ability to change Central nervous system  Part of nervous system containing brain and spinal cord that controls the mind and behaviour Peripheral nervous system  Nerves in the body that extend outside the central nervous system  Divided into somatic nervous system (controls voluntary behaviour) & autonomic nervous system (controls non voluntary behaviour) Cerebral ventricles  Pockets in the brain that contains cerebrospinal fluid, which provides the brain with nutrients & cushion against injury  Allows us to move head rapidly without sustaining brain damage. Forebrain (cerebrum)  Forward part of brain that allows advanced intellectual abilities  Most highly developed area of human brain. Cerebral hemispheres  2 halves of the cortex each which serve distinct yet highly integrated functions Corpus callosum  Large band of fibres connecting the 2 cerebral hemispheres and allowing them to communicate Cerebral cortex  Largest part of forebrain, responsible for analyzing sensory processing and higher brain functions.  EG: reasoning and language Frontal lobe  Forward part of cerebral cortex, responsible for motor functions, language, memory and planning. Motor cortex  Part of frontal lobe responsible for body movement Prefrontal cortex  Part of frontal lobe responsible for thinking, planning and language Broca’s area  Language area in the prefrontal cortex that helps to control speech production Parietal lobe  Upper middle part of the forebrain lying behind the frontal lobe that is specialized for touch and perception. (pain & temperature) Temporal lobe  Lower part of forebrain that plays roles in hearing, understanding language & memory Wernicke’s area  Part of the temporal lobe involved in understanding speech  Damage will result in severe difficulties with understanding speech Occipital lobe  Back part of cerebral cortex specialized for vision Primary sensory cortex  Region of the cerebral cortex that initially process information from the senses Association cortex  Region of cerebral cortex that integrate simpler functions to perform more complex functions Basa
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