LQB281 Dysplasia and Neoplasia.pdf

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Department
Health
Course
LQB281
Professor
Christine Percy
Semester
Spring

Description
Dysplasia  and  Neoplasia   When  apoptosis  and  adaptation  fail.       Learning  objectives:     Define  dysplasia,  Neoplasia,  tumour  and  malignancy  in  the  context  of   neoplasia   Understand  the  risk  factors  for  the  development  of  mutation   Understand  the  8  molecular  alterations  that  occur  in  a  malignancy   Know  the  differences  between  benign  and  malignant  tumours     Nomenclature  of  tumours       Definitions:       Benign:  Friendly       Cancer:  a  malignant  tumour     Malignant:  potentially  fatal       Stroma:  connective  tissue  of  tumour   Tumour:  denotes  swelling,  abnormally         Dysplasia:       Dysplasia  is  not  adaption     Abnormal  premalignant  change       Mutation,  phenotypically  abnormal       Increased  cell  division       Atypia     Polymorphism     Neoplasia:       Formation  of  an  abnormal  growth  in  tissue         Mutations:     Permanent  change  in  DNA     Germ  cells:  transmitted  to  progeny       Inherited  diseases     Somatic  cells:  not  transmitted         Cancers         Congenital  malformations     3  Categories:       Genome  mutations       Chromosome  mutations     Gene  mutations         Molecular  Basis  of  Cancer:     Essential  Alterations  for  malignant  Transformation   1. Self-­‐sufficiency  in  growth  signals     a. Proliferation  without  external  stimuli     2. Insensitivity  to  growth  inhibitory  signals     Dysplasia  and  Neoplasia   3. Evasion  of  apoptosis     4. Defects  in  DNA  repair     5. Limitless  replicative  potential     6. Sustained  angiogenesis     7. Ability  to  invade  and  metastasize   8. Predilection  for  glycolysis  even  in  the  presence  of  oxygen     a. The  Warburg  Effect       The  Warburg  Effect:           Mutations:   Every  time  it  divides,  it  passes  onto  the  daughter  cells   Accumulating  mutations     Grows  into  a  genetically  unstable  cell
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