HMB171 Lecture 6.docx

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Queensland University of Technology
Eric Brymer

HMB171Lecture6- Nutrition  Carbohydrates, proteins, fats- Macronutrients  Vitamins, minerals- Micronutrients Carbohydrates  2 types Simple and complex  Now it’s monosaccharaides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides.  Physically active individuals should consume about 60% of daily calories as carbohydrates, predominantly unrefined complex form.  GI- Glycaemic Index  Complex- Pasta, rice, breads, potatoes, chains of glucose molecules  Simple- Sweets, fruit, soft drink, individual glucose or fructose molecules Protein  Sources of protein → Animal (complete) Meat, dairy → Vegetable (incomplete) beans, nuts, legumes, grains  Amino acids → Nonessential- 14 … Can be made by body → Essential -8… Must be made by body Fat  Saturated → Animal sources → Solid at room temperature  Unsaturated (poly- or mono-) → Vegetable sources → Liquid at room temp  Less than 30% of diet should come from fats  Excessive total fat in diet can cause…. → Breast, colon and prostate cancer → Increased total cholesterol → Increased LDL Cholesterol → Atherosclerotic C-V disease  Ways to decrease fat intake → Minimise “fast” Foods → Minimise processed foods → Use better cuts of meats → Use low fat alternatives → Decrease use of condiments → Eat lower fat snacks → Limit use of “trans” fatty acids → Be wary of very low fat diets Cholesterol  Foods that raise cholesterol → Cooking margarines- high in saturated fats → Cakes, biscuits, chocolate, pastry → Fatty meats → Full fat dairy products  Reducing saturated fat intake reduces cholesterol Vitamins  Organic substances that regulate numerous and diverse physiological processes in the body  Do not contain calories  Two Types → Fat soluble → Water soluble  A balanced diet containing recommended servings of carbohydrates, fat and proteins will meet the RDA standards.  Extra servings of green and yellow vegetable may be beneficial  Extra consumption of citrus and other fruits may be beneficial  Vitamin Supplementation → Not necessary if diet is healthy → Multivitamins are safe (100% RDA) → Not all vitamins are “pure” → Can be toxic at high doses Minerals  Inorganic elements found in food that are essential for life processes  About 25 are essential  Classified as major or trace minerals  RDA’s have only been determined for 7 minerals  A diet containing recommended servings of carbohydrates, fats and proteins will meet the RDA standards  Extra serving of yellow and green vegetables may be beneficial  Dietary supplementation is beneficial for post-menopausal women  Salt should be l
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