Forgery & Uttering
WRITE: Forgery and uttering is defined/created and punished in s488 (1) CC as when a person, with the intent
to defraud, forges a document or utters a forged document and is punished by 3 years imprisonment, unless
aggravated in special cases. For aggravation see page 698 of Carters if question asks.
N.B. s488 (2) Subsection (1) applies whether or not the document is complete and even though it is not, or does
not purport to be , binding in law.
Is the document forged?
Is it a document?
Definition – Document – s1:
(1) Anything on which there is writing; and
(2) Anything on which there are marks, figures symbols, codes, perforations or anything else having a meaning
for a person qualified to interpret them; and
(3) A record
Is it a forged document?
Definition – Forge – s1:
“Forge” a document means make, alter or deal with the document so that the whole of it or a material part of it –
(a) purports to be what, or of an effect that, in fact it is not; or
(b) purports to be made, altered or dealt with by a person who did not make, alter or deal with it or by or for
some person who does not, in fact exist; or
(c) purports to be made, altered or dealt with by authority of a person who did not give that authority; or
(d) otherwise purports to be made, altered or dealt with in circumstances in which it was not made, altered or
Not enough for document to tell a lie, it must be a lie itself: Kolence (used a factious name not enough).
Has [accused] uttered?
Definition – Utter – s1:
“Utter” means and includes using or dealing with, and attempting to induce any person to use, deal with, or act
upon, the thing in question.
N.B. Questions of materiality and falsity are for the jury and subject to the qualification that in that in
appropriate circumstances the judge should either withdraw the case from the jury or going to the other extreme,
direct them that if certain facts are proved the only findings reasonably open will be ones of falsity and
Has [accused] intended to defraud by forging or uttering?
Has [accused] intended to defraud?
In relation to [false pretences] an intent to defraud must mean an intent to deprive another of property by deceit
intent may exist even though the offender may intend to return the property: Balcombe v De Simoni
Essential that he intended to