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Lecture 7

PYB210 Lecture 7 Notes.docx

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Queensland University of Technology

PYB210 Lecture Notes – Week 7  In simplified terms, the purpose of conducting an ANOVA is to determine whether we should reject or retain the null hypothesis (H0). What is Sampling Error?  Sampling error occurs when samples of the population may have different means even though the null hypothesis is true. Monte Carlo Study  A Monte Carlo Study helps us obtain a ‘safe’ value for which we can determine whether the IV has actually had an effect on the DV.  Monte Carlo Studies work by drawing thousands of samples from a population and performing an F test on each one. These F scores are then presented in an F distribution table. F Distribution Table  F tells us the likelihood that something has occurred by chance.  Remember that if the null hypothesis is true then F should always equal 1. (BG=WG=SE).  The F distribution table will tell us how big F has to be before we can say that something has occurred by chance.  If we were to run a Monte Carlo Study where our samples are drawn from different means (in other words, the H 1s true) then we get a second distribution which we call the noncentral F-distribution.  This noncentral distribution lies to the right of the F-distribution because, on average, we get a larger value of F when there is a real difference between the means.  Similarly to the F-distribution, the noncentral F varies as a function of the number of samples (dfA) and the number of scores (df S/A  In addition, noncentral F also varies as a function of the size of the difference between means (called the effect size).  In summary, noncentral F is the distribution of F values we get when H i0 false.  From the F distribution we can determine the probability of obtaining an F-value greater than any given value.  Our decision when determining whether H or 0 is t1ue will be based on the probability of getting an F as large asobservedhen H 0s true. Alpha Level  The probability le
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