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Lecture 6

Long Term Memory: Lecture 6 - Encoding

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Lecture 6: Encoding In focus: Declarative memory & episodic memory 3 Phases of Memory: 1) Encoding – info. First registered 2) Consolidation – info. is being ACTIVELY retained, gradual process, dynamic changes at a neural level to memory. Memory building takes time. 3) Retrieval – utilising the info., eg. Trying to remember something. Not retrieving the original memory  A reconstruction of the memory is what you experience (your best guess to what happened). 1: ENCODING What you end up remembering is determined at the time of encoding.  Depends on what sorts of things are you doing with that info.  Processing during encoding is IMPORTANT.  One method of processing objects well: Method of Loci o Associating what you see with different spatial locations Attention Determined on whether you’re actually attending to the info. How you’re thinking about the info. (ELABORATIVE PROCESSING)  what you’re doing with the information.  Lack of attention to the info: “Sin of absentmindedness”  Improve memory by PAYING ATTENTION MORE.  Procedural memory: Not paying attention to activity as it becomes automated. Our attentional capacity is limited. We can’t pay attention to everything at the same time.  Change blindness shows how our capacity to remain attentive to something is extremely limited. We can’t remember everything at once.  Divided attention experiment  Determines whether a particular mental operation requires a lot of attention. o Primary task: Try to encode or retrieve some set of information. Eg. Person is asked to remember a set of words. o Secondary task: A second task that you have to perform concurrently and that consumes attention. (Occurs at the same time as the primary task. Aim is to drain away attention from primary task).  Low Processing load = simple task that does not require much attention. Eg. Placing cards facing away from you in a line.  High processing load = Requires more attentional resources, so when it is given, memory performance should be lower. Eg. Organising a deck of cards into suits. o Experiment answers Q: Does both encoding and retrieval require attention?  During a high processing load task, encoding performance is much lower than when a person is encoding info. whilst performing a low processing load task. Thus encoding depends on attention.  Whether you’re doing a high/low processing load secondary task, attention does NOT affect memory recall (retrieval. (results are the same for both) Successful encoding depends on how you process the information: o Hermann Ebbinghause: o Rote serial recall – Just repated nonsense syllables over and over again until he ould recit them from memory. o En
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