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CHEM 1007

Chemistry 101 Alkenes - Are hydrocarbons that contain a carbon-carbon double bond. - Are unsaturated—does not have the maximum number of hydrogen possible. Naming rules: - Have suffix –ene - Numbering of the carbon atoms begin at the end closest to the double bond.(double bond gets the lowest number) Cycloalkenes: - Double bond does not need a number as numbering starts from the double bond. - Numbering of double bond is required if there are more than 1 double bond. Cis/Trans Isomers - Rotation around double bond is prevented by high energy barrier; therefore some alkenes exist in 2 forms. Cis-same side/Trans-opposite side. - Are not possible for alkenes that have identical substituents attached to one of the carbons. - They can interconvert only when the molecule absorbs sufficient heat or energy to cause the π bond to break. - Must have 2 different groups on the one carbon - Must have the same atom/group on the opposite side of the double bond. But cis/trans doesn’t work for all alkenes; E/Z sequence alkenes - For tri and tetra substituted alkenes - E =2 high priority groups on opposite sides - - Z=2 high priority groups on the same side - - Priority is assigned by looking at what is attached to the carbon at a time. Step 1: Rank atoms by attached to the carbons in the double bond according to atomic number. (When naming halogens use bromo, cloro, iodo, fluro) Step 2: if the first atom is same, look at the second , third or fourth atoms away from the double bond. Step 3: multiple bonded atoms are equivalent to the same number of single bonded atoms. Organic reactions -reactions occur because of the movement of valance electrons and a reaction mechanism tracks this movement. -electrons that initiate a reaction are accessible in π bonds or lone pairs. -polar reactions: electrons move in pairs -radical reactions: only one electron moves -Based on polarity: interactions between electron rich and electron poor atoms. -Electrophile: electron poor atom, electron loving and they accept a pair of electrons. (Usually positively charged) (i.e. carbons/hydrogens) -Nucleophile: electron rich atom, nucleus loving and they have a pair of electrons to share. (Usually negatively charged) (i.e. halogens) -reaction mechanisms: -a bond is formed when an electron rich atom donates a pair of electrons to an electron poor atom. -electron movement is shown by a double headed arrow. -curved arrows always start at the nucleophile and goes to electrophile. - + -an arrow from a  atom to a  atom in a different molecule indicates new bond formed. - -and arrow from the middle of a bond to a atom in the same molecule indicates a bond broken. Transition state: -the highest energy structure involved in a reaction step, which cannot be isolated or directly observed and it has partially formed bonds. Intermediate: -a structure which can be sometimes isolated and has fully formed bonds. -have higher energy th
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