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32013 Lecture 4: Gr9 June Exam Paper 1 2017 - MEMO (1)
Exam

Grade 9 Memorandum MathsP1 WYNBERG BOYS HIGH SCHOOL MATHEMATICS EXAMINATION MEMORANDUM PAPER 1 6 June 2017 GRADE 9 TIME: 2 hours TOTAL: 100 marks EXAMINER: GD MODERATOR: VZ INSTRUCTIONS: 1. This exam paper consists of FIVE...

Information Technology
32013
Bob
91401 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: T Helper Cell, Mhc Class Ii, Signal Transduction

Introduction to T cells 3 TCR Co-Receptors: CD4 and CD8 CD4 and CD8 bind to nonpolymorphic regions on MHC and participate in signal transduction when TCR engages peptide + MHC CD4 interacts with MHC ...

Science
91401
All Professors
91401 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Antigen-Presenting Cell, Cytotoxic T Cell, Mhc Class Ii

Introduction to T cell 2 MHC I and MHC II Peptide Loading Pathways CD4+ T cells (helper T cells) recognise MHC II on antigen presenting cells (DCs, macrophages) CD8+ T cells (cytotoxic T cells) recogni...

Science
91401
All Professors
91401 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Thymus, Dendritic Cell, Antibody

Introduction to T cells 1 T cells Develop in the Thymus Cortex: Rich in developing T cells (positive selection occurs here) Medulla: Lower T cell numbers (negative selection occurs here) Positive and Negative Selection ...

Science
91401
All Professors
91401 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Cytotoxic T Cell, Clonal Selection, Mhc Class I

Antigen Processing &Presenting 2 Clonal Selection: Adaptive immune cells which encounter antigen in the periphery are induced to survive, proliferate and differentiate, generating antigen-specific clones ...

Science
91401
All Professors
91401 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Antigen Presentation, Antigenic Shift, Reassortment

Antigen Processing &Presentation 1 The co-evolutionary interplay between pathogens & hosts is continual & dynamic because of: The appearance of exotic new infectious diseases generates the ever-present possibility of new ...

Science
91401
All Professors
91401 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Innate Immune System, Interleukin 10, Cytokine

Innate Immunity 3 Cytokines Cytokines - proteins, act as signalling molecules for the immune system Secreted by cells Generally of low molecular weight Bind to receptors on immune cells that help deter...

Science
91401
All Professors
91401 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Necrotizing Fasciitis, Antimicrobial Peptides, Phagosome

Innate immunity 1 Phagocytosis White blood cells such as macrophages is phagocytes. (e.g. Granulocyte: mainly neutrophils, macrophages: matured from monocytes, immature dendritic cells) Phagocytosis is an active process by...

Science
91401
All Professors
91401 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: T Helper Cell, Mast Cell, Interleukin 4

T cell responses and their regulation 2 CD4 T helper 1 cells Advanced responses against endocytosed pathogens E.g. mycobacteria Th1 stimulate the microbicidal activity of macrophages Stimulated by environmental: IFN [Produ...

Science
91401
All Professors
91401 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Ctla-4, Cd28, Cd86

T cell responses and their regulation 3 Immunity T cell regulation 1. T cell activation (signal 1) can be inhibited by dephosphorylation 2. Co-stimulation (signal 2) can be inhibited by CTLA-4 B7.1 = CD80 B7.2 = CD86 3. Cy...

Science
91401
All Professors
91401 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Immunological Synapse, Il-2 Receptor, Zap70

Genetics of the TcR the Immunological Synapse 3 The Immunological Synapse T cell interacting with a dendritic cell through the immunological synapse (adhesion molecules, foreign antigen). The Immunological Synapse *Import...

Science
91401
All Professors
91401 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Double Negative, Enzyme, Phospholipid

Genetics of the TcR the Immunological Synapse 1 The Thymus Specialised architecturally organised microenvironment for developing T cells T cell development in a nutshell Generates 2 distinct lineages (; ) that express di...

Science
91401
All Professors
91401 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Interferon Gamma, Natural Killer Cell, Perforin

T cell responses and their regulation 1 Cytotoxic T cells Kill cells infected with viruses or intracellular pathogens Produce perforins and granzymes Similar killing mechanism as NK cells Mainly produce Interferon gamma (I...

Science
91401
All Professors
91401 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Thymocyte, Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain, Genetic Recombination

Genetics of the TcR the Immunological Synapse 2 TcR structure and genes Similar to B cell structure and gene re-arrangement BUT not the same NOTE: Diversity only occurs on the beta chain Gene rearrangement Unique mechanis...

Science
91401
All Professors
91401 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: B-Cell Receptor, Peanut Allergy, Allergic Rhinitis

Antibody Isotypes 2 Immunoglobulin E (IgE) heavy chain Very low serum concentration (0.002 of Ig) 4 heavy chain C domains Potent biological actions Provides immunity against helminths BUT also responsible for allergy Hay f...

Science
91401
All Professors

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