PSYC2040 Lecture Notes

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University of Queensland
Matthew Hornsey

Social and Organisational Psychology 1 PSYC2040Lecture One and Two Communication is the transfer of meaningful information from one person to another in involves interrelationships among people shared understanding and influencesThere are six reasons as to why we smile communicate happiness mask anger smooth over a negative situation soften a criticism express reluctant compliance and feel happier Gazing occurs approximately 61 of the time during conversations and typically lasts 3 seconds only about 31 of the time there is an eye contact Gazing communicates liking listening regulate turn taking communicate secret information and indicate aggression and signal power or status Women and men in high status positions assume the dominant gaze when the status is not specified men assume the dominant gaze pattern Touch also has six broad functions communicate positive affect communicate playfulness and touch as control communicate negative affect accomplish tasks and satisfy ritualised requirements There are differences in touch between gender roles Proxemics can be regulated as a function of liking status and cultureThere are many subtle indications during conversations that indicate turntaking continuing and back channel communication Riggios seven dimensions of social skills illustrate the complexity of socialising Social skills also involve communication accommodation mimicry and selfdisclosure Lecture Three There are six types of love passionate companionate game playing possessive logical and selfless Proximity plays a large role in developing relationships along with physical attractiveness Physical attractiveness affects treatment of own infant children preschool interests in dating sentencing and incomeoften is determined by personality and universal agreements such as facial symmetry and body proportions According to the social exchange theory people are motivated to maximise benefits and minimise costs in their relationships with others The evolutionary psychology perspective asserts that there are different environmental pressures on men and women and creates implications in regards of attractiveness to the other partner Relationships between couples can also affect the health of the individuals this may be affected by the attachment style Moreover there are perverse patterns of attractionselfverification theory states that we seek feedback that reinforces our preexisting ideas about ourselves gainloss hypothesis suggests that we tend to like those who initially dislike us and then warm to us and the maltreatment effects indicate that oscillating punishment and reward can have perverse effects on infant animals as well as humans Lecture Four There are three group processes that affect our behaviour audience effects social loafing and bystander effect Audience effects are the impact on individual task performance of the presence of others Triplett 1898 asserted that there was an improvement in performance attributed to competition Zajonc Heingartner and Herman 1969 found that the presence of other helped performance in simple tasks or mazes for cockroaches social facilitation but worst in difficult tasks social inhibition According to their model the audience does not need to be evaluatingthe mere Social and Organisational Psychology 2 PSYC2040presence is able to increase the drive Cottrell 1972 argues that the fear of evaluation leads to the drive and affects the dominant response for social facilitation or inhibition depending on the task His experiment demonstrated the evaluation apprehension theory whereby social facilitation only occurred in front of the attentive audienceThis was also supported in Markus 1978 stripping experiment however emphasises that social facilitation occurs only for familiar tasks The mixed support of this model led to Sanders et al 1978 distraction conflict theorythe presence of audience creates attentional conflict because audience is distracting and affects the drive as well as result This theory has two advantages effects resemble social facilitation and inhibition can be evoked when noise and lights not just humans distract participants and helps explain audience effects in animals The selfawareness theory suggests that performance and motivation increases for easy tasks because the discrepancy between actual self and ideal self is less pronounced whereas theres impaired motivation and performance for difficult tasks Attentionoverload model is similar to distraction conflict theory without the drive as it suggests easy tasks requires less attentional cues so the elimination of distraction improves performance however difficult tasks need a wide variety of cues so the attentional narrowing diverts attention from cues that are equally important Last Sannas 1992 selfexpectation and social evaluation theory asserts audience presence exaggerates selfexpectations and expectations of evaluations in result affect the performance Social loafing occurs when efforts are pooled and individual performances cannot be identified leading to reduction in individual effort Ringelmann 1913 highlights this with a rope pulling experiment however can be criticised that participants may be in the way of each other during the process thus performance is inhibited Subsequently Ingham Levinger Graves and Peckham 1974 conducted an experiment with pseudo environments where participants thought they were working alonetogether while blindfold Latane Williams and Harkins 1979 did a similar experiment with headphones both experiments show that social loafing is evident in larger groups Social loafing occurs when there is a lack of evaluation apprehension to maintain output equity and there is no clear performance standard to match Factors affecting social loafing include whether individual performance is identifiable type of culture collectivist group cohesiveness intergroup competition task meaningfulness Zaccaro 1984 illustrated that when there is a heightened social relevance of task individual productivity significantly increases in fourperson groups The bystander effect is a phenomenon in which the presence of other people inhibits helpfulness due to diffusion of responsibility audience inhibition and social influence Darley and Latane 1968 demonstrate that the diffusion of responsibility increases as group size increases even if you dont actually see the other members Latane and Darley 1970 demonstrate that social influence can also affect responses even if the life in danger is the participant himself Audience inhibition refers to the fear of social blunders or overreaction of a scenario Latane and Darley 1976 threeinone experiment explores all three factors in the bystander effect The bystander effect is less strong when bystanders know each other a sense of accountability know the victim or if the victim is a child Lecture FiveThere are many intergroup relations that explain prejudice and stereotyping in our society Authoritarian personality theory Adorno et al 1950 explains that certain people are prejudiced
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