SOCY2220 Lecture Notes

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Kristen Lyons

Globalisation and Development in PostColonial Societies 1 SOCY2220Lecture One and Two Development is a highly contested concept and is linked to concepts of modernity economic process human development social inequalities and colonialism It is important to acknowledge that the understanding of development changes over time space context and interests of stakeholders Development is a long term process of structural societal transformation short term outcome of desirable targets and a dominant discourse of western modernityThe concept of development began with the Age of Enlightenment whereby the scientific revolution introduced ideas about progress and reason scientific method and objectivity The concept of development was further challenged during the Industrial Revolution due to the intense migration to manufacturing areas creating challenges in planning and poverty After World War II there was a division of labour as the wealthier nations of United States United Kingdom and Australasia became concerned to improve conditions of life in poorer parts of the world However the overgeneralisation of victims and overlook agency were issues of the development problem Truman strongly states that it was Americas responsibility to help the poorer countries as it was the NorthSouth responsibility however it was considered to be a democratic fair dealing Indicators of development include poor nation defined by gross domestic product poor health defined by infant mortality maternal morbidity life expectancy and malnutrition low fossil energy consumption but high use of biofuels population density and work force structure defined by agricultural and industrial production It is important to acknowledge that the economy is not the only way to view development the gross national happiness can be also used to define development in a meaningful wayDevelopment is often assumed to be measured or assessed and although the choice of development indicators provide important framework for understanding global inequalities in wealth education and energy consumption it often hides social and spatial variations There are three main problems with measuring development first it requires proxy measures to be agreed and the choice of indicators are not straightforward second comparability of data is difficult due to differing methods of data collection and data may exclude socially economically or geographically marginal information third development measures are often quantitative excluding qualitative dimensions of developmentLecture Three Classical and neoliberal development theories focus on the central role of the market in promoting economic progress Adam Smith theorizes about the role of the market in economic development focusing on the free market and the regulation by the invisible hand of the market David Ricardo expands the free market and developed the theory of comparative advantage through specialisation to be more effective and efficient in growth and development Classical economists belief in the market as a mechanism for maximising efficient resource use was challenged by significant economic events more specifically the 1929 Wall Street Crash and 1930s Great Depression John Maynard Keynes Keynesian theory argued that the free market was not necessarily the positive force but real investment is the key to growth Also governments intervention and expenditure is viewed as a way of taming crises
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