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Lecture 3

BISC 102 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Johari Window, Long-Term Memory, Confirmation Bias

9 pages89 viewsFall 2015

Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BISC 102
Professor
na
Lecture
3

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Chapter 3
1. Self concept :A collection of beliefs about one's own nature, unique qualities, and typical behavior.
2. self enhancement :The tendency to focus on and present positive information about oneself and to
minimize negative information
3. self efficacy :an individual's beliefs concerning his or her ability to cope successfully with a particular
task or situation.
4. locus of control :A belief about the amount of control a person has over situations in their life.
5. social identity theory :a theory that a person's self-concept and self-esteem not only derive from
personal identity and accomplishments, but from the status and accomplishments of the various
groups to which the person belongs
6. perception :the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize
meaningful objects and events
7. selective attention :this term describes the situation when you are focused on certain stimuli in the
environment while other stimuli are excluded
8. confirmation bias :a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to
ignore or distort contradictory evidence.
9. categorical thinking :Organizing people and objects into preconceived categories that are stored in
our long-term memory
10. mental models :visual or relational images in our mind representing the external world
11. stereotyping :the process by which people draw inferences about others based on their knowledge
of the categories to which others belong
12. attribution process :The perceptual process of deciding whether an observed behavior or event is
caused largely by internal or external factors
13. fundamental attribution error :the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to
underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition.
14. self serving bias :The tendency to assign oneself credit for successes but to blame failures on
external forces
15. self fulfilling prophecy :An expectation that causes you to act in ways that make that expectation
come true.
16. positive organizational behaviour :A perspective of organizational behaviour that focuses on
building positive qualities and traits within individuals or institutions as opposed to focusing on what is
wrong with them
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17. halo effect : the tendency to assume that people who have one good trait also have other good
traits.
18. false consensus effect :the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs
and behaviors
19. primacy effect : the tendency to emphasize the first impression over later impressions when forming
a perception
20. recency effect : the tendency to emphasize the most recent impression over earlier impressions
when forming a perception
21. johari window :a model used to understand the process of self-disclosure consisting of a square with
four panels that provides a pictorial representation of how "known" we are to ourselves and others
22. contact hypothesis :the idea that regular interaction between members of different groups reduces
prejudice, providing that it occurs under favorable conditions
23. empathy :an understanding of another's feelings
24. global mindset :ability to develop and interpret criteria for personal and business performance that
are independent from the assumptions of a single country, culture or context; and to implement those
criteria appropriately in different countries, cultures and contexts
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Self concept and how we perceive the world around us
Self concept
- Self concept: is an ind’l self beliefs and self evaluation.
- Self concept varies in their complexity consistency and clarity 3 different charicaristics:
oComplexity: number of distinct and important roles or identities that that ppl perceive about
themselves. (friend, daughter sports enthusiastic .. etc), low complexity, when ind’l most impt
identities are highly interconnect, such as when they are all work related (manger, engineer,
family income earner)
oInternal Consistency: how compatible person’s self concept identies with each other and with
the persons personality, values and other attributes. High internal consistency when most self
perceived roles require similar personality, values and other attributes. Low: the opposite
(instead of similar, conflict) (ex: see yourself as exacting engineer, at the same time you see
urself as a cavalier and risk oriented skier)
oClarity: to what extend does the person define him/herself clearly, confidently ad consistently
over time? how we are? Can we describe ourselves? Clarity increases with age and with
increase Consistency with the person multiple selves.
- Too much variation causes tension and conflict.
- Now talk about 4 selves (self enhancement, verification, evaluation and social self)
Self enhancement
-Self enhancement: a person’s inherent motivation to have a positive self concept and to have other
perceive him or her favorably, such as being competent, attractive, lucky, ethical and important.
- Or The tendency to focus on and present positive information about oneself and to minimize negative
information
- Ppl tend to rate themselves above average and believe they are better than average, and blaming the
situation for their mistakes.
- In organization, self enhancement can be both negative and positive:
oNegative: self enhancement can lead to bad decisions, like overestimate the probability of
success in investment plan.
oPositive: they have better mental and physical health when viewing their self concept in a
positive light
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