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Applied Computing
Harry John

APCO 1P50 Wednesday October 31, 2012 First Amendment Rights  Right to freedom of expression o Guaranteed by First Ammendment – important right for free people everywhere.  Definition of free speech includes: non-verbal, visual, and symbolic forms of expression, right to speak anonymously.  Canada: Charter of Rights and Freedoms  Censoring the internet – focus on censoring pornography from minors.  There is a trend toward less government restraint on printed word.  Broadcasted content is much more censored. CRTC start regulating the structure and content of the industry – i.e. that we must have Canadian content and also Canadian ads in the Superbowl. Not Protected by the First Amendment  Perjury  Incitement of panic/to crime  Fraud  “Fighting words”  Defamation  Sedition  Obscene speech  Allows some restrictions on advertising (e.g. we don’t see TV ads on cigarettes or people drinking alcohol)  Case study: Italy & Google Executives o Video of Autistic kid being bullied on YouTube. Obscene Speech  Speech is considered obscene when:  Average person finds the work appeals to the prurient interest  Work depicts or describes sexual conduct in an offensive way  Lacks serious literary, artistic, political or scientific value  George Carlin records “Filthy Words” in 1973 – swears at 2:00 p.m. (accessible to kids) o Led to obscene adult content being aired only after 9:00 p.m. Defamation  Some oral or written statement of alleged fact that is false and harms another person. Harm is often of a financial nature.  Slander – oral defamatory statement  Libel – written defamatory statement o Not when you target a general group, rather a specific individual.  Where are court cases heard? If it originates in one place but heard in another? Freedom of Expression: Key Issues  Controlling access to information on the internet  Anonymity on the internet  Corporate blogging  Defamation  Pornography  Hate speech  APCO 1P50 Wednesday October 31, 2012 APCO 1P50 Wednesday October 31, 2012 Controlling Access to Information on the Internet  Freedom of speech on the Internet is complicated by the ease by which children can access the internet.  Communications Decency Agency  Child Online Protection Act (COPA) o Applies to communication for commercial purposes o Imposes penalties for exposing minors to harmful material on the Web o Found unconstitutional in 2004  Internet filtering o Software installed with a web browser o Blocks access to certain web sites that contain inappropriate or offensive material  e.g. Google’s SafeSearch  URL Filtering – blocks objectionable URLs or domain names  Keyword filtering – blocks key words or phrases  Dynamic content filtering – websites contented evaluated before being displayed o Uses object analysis and image recognition  ICRA rating system – now discontinued o Websites would present a self-rating of their website, whether or not their content was offensive – most websites wouldn’t describe their content as offensive.  US – Federally financed schools and libraries must block computer access to: obscene material, pornography, anything considered harmful to minors.  Schools and libraries subject to CIPA do not receive internet access discounts unless they: o Filter obscene, child pornographic, harmful images to minors o Adopt a policy to monitor minors’ online activities. o Adopt a policy restricting minors’ access to materials harmful to them.  CIPA doesn’t require the tracking of Internet use by minors or adults.  Acceptable use policy agreement is an essential element of successful program in schools  Signed by: students, parents, employees. Global Impact of Censorship  Global nature of the Internet protects against censorship (banned in one country, move to another)  May impose more restrictive censorship (block everything in an attempt to block one thing)  Companies who do business in countries that control Internet access must comply with the local laws o Google argued that some access is better than no access (Fundamental Human Right?)  Some people believe that Internet access is a fundamental right – it’s a
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