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Astronomy 1P01 notes.docx

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Bozidar Mitrovic

Astronomy 1P01September 7 2012Astronomy is not the same thing as astrology Astronomy is science and astrology is a form of divinationA short survey of the universe and the distant scales scientific notation ie powers of 10 Earth Approximately a sphere with a radius which is about 6400 km The diameter is 12800 kmRADIUS The Greeks knew in particular Aristotle 384 BC322BC that the Earth must be a sphere They deduced from observations travelling south one can see new stars and constellations groups of stars September 10 2012 The earth spins rotates from west to east as one would see from above the north pole once every 24 hours This socalled daily motion is responsible for the cycle of day and night Also it is responsible for the fact that an observer on earth sees the sun the moon and the star move from east to westFull spin36015 degreeshour 24 hours24 hours N WE Sunset Line S SunlightAn observer approaching the sunset line he moves together with the Earth would see the following WS HORIZON E Also the Earth revolves around the sun once every 365 36525 daysEARTHThe extra quarter of a day is the reason for having leap years in calendars The average EarthMoon distance is about 384000 km Radius of the moon is aboutof the radius of the Earth The speed of light in vacuum is about 300000 kmsecond That is the maximum speed of any signal or object It takes light384000km 384s128s approx 13 seconds 300000 km3Therefore it takes light 13 seconds to travel from the Earth to the moon The average distance between the Earth to the sun is 150000000 km 1500000001 Astronomical Unit AU September 12 2012Sun produces energy by fusing hydrogen and heliumHow long does it take light to reach us from the sun Time EarthSun Distance150000000 km 500s500 min8 min 20 secSpeed of Light 300000 km 60151 83 min60 SO1 AU83 Light MinutesSolar SystemSun8 PlanetsTheir Satellites and RingsAsteroid Belt Half way between Mars and JupiterDwarf Planets Pluto Eris etc CometsMeteoroidsMeteors Shooting starMeteorites composed of silica rocksIn 2006 the International Astronomical Union IAU set a set of criteria for an object to be a planet after the discovery of Eris in 20051 It has to revolve around the Sun 2 It has to have enough mass so that it assumes a spherical shape under its own gravity 3 It has cleared its orbit ex It is the largest object at that distance from the Sun
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