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School
Brock University
Department
Astronomy
Course
ASTR 1P02
Professor
Jenny Janke
Semester
Fall

Description
I. Pattern recognition the way in which we conclude that some constellation of stimulus features represents a single identifiable object. Actual objects. Most research is done in the domain of vision. Most of it is done with psych 100 students, blank computer screens with random objects popping up, headphones with random sounds. All pattern recognition occurs in all of sensory modalities. Sound of baseball hitting off of a bat, ice cubes dropping into a glass. Touch, smell, sound, taste. Process that we do all the time, quickly, easily, accurately. The more quickly, easily, effortlessly, accurately a human does something makes it really hard to study. A good research strategy is to find people who can make mistakes in accuracy and effort = good research. Look for situations in which this is difficult. One thing we could do is put a letter on a computer screen for a brief period of time then take it off. 1. Cognition broadly conceived memory, decision making, thinking 2. Overwhelming majority of cognitive activity is unconscious. 95% of all activity is unconscious. 3. Conscious mind relative to unconscious to really slow, inefficient and primarily serial in nature can only do one thing at a time. Unconscious mind is really fast and effect. parallel in nature, can do many things at once. 4. Cognitive psychology- 1 second is a very long period of time. Most measured in milliseconds. 1/1000 of a second. 5. Tachistoscope (t-scope) controls exposure interval for looking at a stimulous. A flap can block out the image after a few milliseconds. More commonly done with a computer screen nowadays. Can be as small as 1 millisecond. People commonly struggle with this task. A good strategy is to look for situations in which people dont do certain things easily, effortlessly, accurately. Use little kids instead possibly. Want people to make mistakes. II. When I show you a stimulus, you form a mental description of the stimulus, then you compare that to all mental descriptions of all different objects that are stored in long term memory. When you find a close match, then you have determined with the stimulus is. What is a mental description? Form? How do we compare descriptions? III. Template theories each class of objects has a image or template that corresponds to it. unAnalyzed wholistic entities, not broken down to elementary components. When comparing to stimulus look for a close match. 1. Point by point match literal point by point match 2. Pick highest matching score template that is closest to stimulus is chosen. Highest score, with the most matches. 3. Consider no other information dont do anything else, use only point by point match. IV. Major problems 1. Too sensitive to transformations, process that is too sensitive. Ex. A large E compared to a small E. 2. Small details can have large effects. Some details are important, and some are not important. Ex. Os that are over drawn, missing a little section, a line in a place that makes it look like a Q. The little line makes a big difference. Each cell in the matrix is equally important to the other cells 3. Does not allow for alternative interpretations. Ex. Is mind twisters (2 images within one). 4. No role of context really important, the perception of a stimulus depends on its surroundings. Perception not made in isolation, but in a context. 10 56 47 13 D G F B V. Possible solutions 1. Standardization (preprocessing), making the stimulus similar to the template. Standardize the stimulus. A great big E cant be too big, unless you already know what it is. If you know what it is, you dont need to standardize it. 2. Multiple templates templates for every kind of stimulus 3. All for context compare representations of stimulus, unless there is contextual interpretations saying otherwise. Context determines everything. VI. Ironic that template theories have been developed as descriptors of human perception. Not very good descriptors of human perception. Very good representation of machine perception. Ex. Scantron grading machine with a master template for grading the right answers. All machine perception requires stimulus to be controlled very precisely. VII. PATIO VIII. Feature theories allow us to describe patterns by listing their elementary properties. Ex property list- listing of or decomposition of the stimulus into more elementary feautres. When children learn what something is, they are simultaneously learning what it is not. Learn that an F is not an E and an E is not an F. another example of this is P vs R. the bottom line of the letter is the DISTINCTIVE FEATURE. You have to learn what something is not, in order to learn what it is. In study with little kids, if distinctive feature is highlighted, kids do a lot better versus no highlighted. If kids are trained on highlighted, they do better on non-highlighted. If they are trained on non- h and tested on non-h they dont do that well. 1. Property list helps identify stimuli with stored descriptions in long term memory. You chose the one that matches with the most properties. Details that correspond to the features are very important, and vice versa.2. Cognitive psychologists are very interested in creating process models- different cognitive operations that occur over time. Process model- how the mind thinks. Input properties matching description decision stage. Ex. A angles, lines which letters have properties that match which letter has most matches? A. whole process is unconscious. Stimuli are not single things, but collections of features. 3. Physiological evidence. 2 researchers (Canadian) hugo weetzlow (sp?) won nobel prize for discovery of cells in the visual cortex of cats that do not fire in response to the direct stimulation of light. But do fire in response to patterns of light. The patterns of light correspond to lines, angles, edges, ect. Perception of properties are suggested to be hardwired into your system. 4. Nature of errors evidence. people can mistake objects for other things by missing the distinct feature. When exposed to a letter for a few miliseconds, most common mistakes are letters that are missing or have a distinctive feature from one another. The more features stimuli have in common, the more likely they will be mistaken for each other, and vice versa. 5. Stabilized image evidence experiment of measuring perception of distance of light in a really dark room. Light never moved, but subject thought that light moved. In book something phenomenon there are muscles that hold your eyes in the sockets, and they are always vi
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