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Citric Acid Cycle.docx

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Nicholas D Vesprini

Citric Acid CycleFebruary2714826 AM Glucose oxidation is what fuels metabolism So far in the course have we oxidized glucose Glucose2 pyruvate Is this the most oxidized state of glucose Can we go furtherNo we can go to carbon dioxideIn the presence of oxygen pyruvate is completely oxidized to carbon dioxide and waterPlace the electron on high energy intermediates The complete oxidation of pyruvate in the presence of oxygen is known as cellular respiration Process occurs wheremitochondria Respiration as a whole involves 3 sets of enzymes in independent but highly interwoven metabolic pathwaysCacEtcATPase The main portion of carbohydrate fatty acid and amino acid oxidation occurs in the mitochondria via the CAC Also known as the tricarboxylic acid TCA cycle or the Krebs cycleIn addition to fuel oxidation a critical feature of the CAC is that it also generates biosynthetic precursors to be used in a variety of pathways 1 Glucose synthesisgluconeogenesis Precursor oxaloacetate OAA2 Fatty acid synthesisPrecursor acetyl CoA via citrate3 Amino acid biosynthesis Precursor OAA and alpha ketogluterateWhere does the CAC occur in the cellIn the mitochondria matrix Where is the pyruvate that was generated from glycolysisIn the cytosol Pyruvate needs to cross the IMM via a carrier protein that facilitates the cotransport of protons Where is the ETCOn the inner mitochondria membrane Where are protons more highly concentratedIMS matrix Why am I asking you about protonsNeed the proton gradient in order to bring pyruvate into the mitochondriaWhere does pyruvate need to goThe matrixPumping of pyruvate is performed by pyruvate transfer protein PTP atcost of proton motive force Pyruvate accumulates inside the IMM paid for by the rundown of the proton motive force which is established by the ETC Once inside the matrix the CAC cycle can begin First step modify pyruvate and link part of the carbon skeleton to a carrier known as acetylCoenzyme A aka acetyl CoA sometimes just CoA Debated whether this is the first step or not
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