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BCHM 3P01 (21)


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Nicholas D Vesprini

ThermodynamicsMarch1114828 AM Outline IntroductionFree energyFree energy and standard free energyEnergy coupling coupled reactionsThermodynamics of glycolysisIntroductionHypothetical reactionA B Questions we often ask Does the equilibrium favour the reactant or the product How much energy was released How much energy was conserved and in what form oWhen pyruvate is converted to acetyl CoA energy is conserved through NADH and the thioesterbondHow is the pathway reversedHow fast does the reaction go How is a futile cycle avoided The first set of questions are thermodynamics and the second set of questions are kinetic questions Hypothetical reaction ABC As AB collide a transition molecule AB will be formed very briefly before C is produced AB is unstable and high energy shown by an increase in energy level The magnitude of the increase is known as the energy of activation Ea and acts as a barrier to prevent the production of C The higher Ea is the less likely it will be for AB to form a transition state and successfully be converted to C Ea is the rate limiting step in the reaction the larger its value the slower the reactionoTherefore plays a role in the rate of reactionEnzymes work to reduce the activation energy of a reaction G determines the energy released in going from reactant to product Does value of G depend on the pathwaytaken to get from A to B oNope Does value of G give us any indication of how fast a reaction will go oNope that would be EaActivation energy barrier determines the rate of a reaction how fast it will go ie kinetics enzymes function to lower the activation energy barrier speed up a reaction oDo enzymes determine which direction a reaction will go in oNo enzymes only provide a place for the reaction they can run in reverse because they grab onto the intermediatesoWhat term determines the direction of a reaction oThe value of G Laws of ThermodynamicsFirst law total energy of a system and its surroundings remains constantenergy is not created or destroyedDoes that give us any information about the direction of a reaction o Nond 2Law Spontaneous processes occur in directions which increase the overall disorder of the universe Entropy increases SDoes indicate direction but not easily measured Total energy change from a reaction G must equal the energy available to perform the reaction ie energy for work Henthalpy and the energy that has gone to increasing disorder SentropyoG HSEg Protein folding can be a spontaneous event that would appear to be increasing order ie decreasing Snot increasing disorder
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