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BCHM 3P01 (21)

Redox Reactions and Oxidative Phosphorylation.docx

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Nicholas D Vesprini

Redox Reactions and Oxidative PhosphorylationJanuary1414754 AMGlobal warminghas been damaging our earthGoal to use the suns energy to make liquid fuel for usPhotosystem two is very delicate 5 degrees and in the darkUse all the light form and put it in one protein MetabolismCarbon metabolism on metal centresThioester acetyl methylsulfide and acetyl can be generated from CO and CH3Sh on Ni and Fe centresReduction reaction is always matched to an oxidation reaction redox reactionOxidation is burning oxygen added the more oxygen I can add the more I can burnAlcohol Dehydrogenase ActionOxidation of alcohol metabolism of alcoholWhat is reduced and what is oxidizedoNAD is reduced and the alcohol is oxidizedA basic amino acid would be a good general base for this reaction histidine Good question given two transition states what would be the best enzyme to useLook at what the charges are and what amino acids would work bestOxidative PhosphorylationThe redox potential is how much does it want an electronAlways write reactions in their reduction form We know that we need 305 kJmol to make one ATPIf we couple the 2185 kJmol to that 305 kJmol we can see that we can make several molecules of ATPThe diagram we saw shows several stepwise reactions of oxygen reduction to water to allow the coupling to ATP makingTo change an E value change concentration of the enzyme NADH EffciencyNADH makes three ATPs so 3x305915 kJmolThis is what I have to payI have a 2185 kJmol bill thoughSo 915 kJmol2185 kJmol x 10042 efficientHmm sounds inefficient Experiments shows that the efficiency is70 though HOWIf we want to make the same predictions invivo what is different Remember standard conditions are regarding pH temperature and concentrationsConcentration is generally differentIn the mitochondria the local pH is also very different So the efficiency is up to 70 and by the way car engines are at30 Mitochondria has its own DNA as well as chloroplast only from maternal parent The ComplexesOccurs through 4 different complexes Essentially handing off electrons from one to the otherElectron transfer coupled to proton transport is a theme that we shall see again and againThese are integral membrane proteins whyCreate proton motive forceNADH comes into complex releases proton and becomes NADHowdo we couple multielectron reactions with single electron reactionsIronsulfur centres FeS either have the cubane or the bridging sulfursThese clusters are similar to the prebiotic NiFe centres as well as PSI Appreciate the diversity and understand the limitations of the chemistry of life Dumps electrons to CoQ
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