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Muscle Development

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Brock University
Daniel Glenday

Outline of Lecture 11 Muscle Development I. There are four muscle types - They are: skeletal, cardiac, smooth, myoepithelial - Classic stuff: review structural and functional differences of the muscle types - Skeletal muscles can specialize; in vertebrates, there are slow and fast twitch - Specialization is due to isoforms of muscle structural proteins - Function of myoepithelial is to expel secretions from various glands and dilate iris of eye II. Embryology of muscle - See Lecture 08 on mesoderm formation; details on tissue types that arise are also on p.3-4 here - Paraxial, intermediate, and lateral plate mesoderm - Somite formation - Arises from paraxial meso., divides into sclero-, myo-, dermatome (medial to lateral) - Somitomeres become somites upon mesenchymal to epithelial transition - First (anterior) 7 remain somitomeres, rest become somites - Myotome gives rise to myogenic cells of the epimere (dorsal, spine extensor muscles) and hypomere (ventral by migration, body wall muscles) - Where muscles arise from - Head skeletal: somitomeres and somites of paraxial meso. that migrate to branchial arch - Limb skeletal: entirely from somites; muscle fate is determine by contact with connective tissue - Smooth: mesenchymal cells from splanchic mesoderm - Cardiac: splanchnic mesoderm around endothelial heart tube - Myoepithelial: ectoderm (not mesoderm!) III. Muscle differentiation - Myoblasts (which can be distinguished from fibroblasts) divide then fuse to form what develops into a skeletal muscle fiber
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