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BIOL 1F25 -Lec 1

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Nicholas D Vesprini

Lecture 1 Overview of the Nervous System: Central Nervous System (CNS): consists of brain and spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): nerve fibres that transmit signals between the CNS and organs in other parts of the body -fibers grouped into bundles called nerves (43 pairs of nerves) What Does the Brain Do? -senses information from environment -imports information -analyses/stores information -generates behavioral responses Functions of the Brain -cortex of the left and right cerebral hemisphere divided into four lobes -Frontal lobe: reason, judgement, execution of ideas, contains primary motor centre; receives and coordinates messages from other lobes; motor control, speech production -Temporal lobe: hearing, learning, language comprehension, and memory -Parietal lobe: contains primary sensory centre; receives information about pressure, pain, touch and temperature -Occipital lobe: vision and visual perception -the Broca’s area located in the Frontal lobe controls speech production; the Wernicke’s area in the Temporal lobe controls language comprehension; the motor cortex in the frontal lobe controls voluntary movement; somatosensory cortex in the parietal lobe receives sensory messages; the visual cortex in the occipital lobe receives and processes visual information Neurons arranged in Functional Groups -Forebrain: a combination of upper-level structures -Midbrain: helps coordinate movement patterns, sleep, and arousal -Hindbrain: made up of pons, cerebellum, and medulla -Pons: involved with respiration, movement, waking, sleeping, and dreaming -Cerebellum: coordinates fine muscle movement, balance, and some perception and cognition -Medulla: responsible for breathing, heartbeat, and other vital life functions -Hypothalamus: responsible for regulating emotions and drives (i.e. hunger, thirst, sex, aggression) -Amygdala: part of the limbic system; involved in aggression and fear -Cerebral cortex: thin outer layer responsible for most complex behaviors and higher mental processes -Corpus callosum: thick band of axons connecting the two hemispheres of the cerebral cortex -Thalamus: relays sensory messages to cortex -Reticular formation: helps screen inc
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