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Lecture 1

BIOL 1F25 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Dyskinesia, Synuclein, Ubiquitin


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOL 1F25
Professor
Gaynor E Spencer
Lecture
1

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BIOL 1F25
NOV 25TH 2015
LEC 1
A. Joffre Mercier
Room MCC E207, phone ext. 3832
Office hours: Tuesdays 3:30-5:00 or by appointment
Email: jmercier@brocku.ca
Scientific method:
Observation
Hypothesis
Prediction
Test prediction
Refine hypothesis
Parkinson’s Disease: example of using scientific method
OUTLINE FOR NEXT 4 LECURES:
Parkinson’s Disease:
Overview
Cause
Treatments:
oDrugs
oTissue grafts
oDeep brain stimulation
TODAY: Lecture 1 (Mercier)
Overview of Parkinson’s Disease (PD):
Symptoms & complications
Incidence
Economic impact
Definition & cause
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Phillip Langston 1983 paper
Symptoms:
Tremor:
oBegin in limb (hands, fingers)
o“Pill-rolling tremor” (rubbing thumb & forefinger)
oHand tremor at rest
Slowed movement (bradykinesia)
oLonger time to complete tasks
oShorter steps when walking
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oDifficulty rising from chair
oDragging feet
Rigid muscles
oIn any part of body
oCan cause pain
Impaired posture & balance
oFlexed body posture (“stooping”)
Loss of automatic movements
oLoss of blinking, smiling:
Fixed gaze (stare) in the face
oLoss of hand gestures & arm swinging when walking
Speech changes
oSpeak softly; monotone
oHesitate b/f speech
oSlurred speaking
Trouble writing (small, difficult to perform)
Complications:
Cognitive difficulties:
oProblems thinking
oDementia (later stages; not very responsive to medication)
oDepression & emotional changes
Swallowing problems:
oDrooling
Sleep problems:
oWalking at night
oFalling asleep during day
Incidence:
4-6 million cases worldwide
> 1 mill cases in US at any one time
> (MS + Muscular Dystrophy + ALS)
50,000-60,000 new case per year in US
13.4 new cases / 100,000 people each year
14th leading cause of death in US
~ 60% are men; ~ 40% are women
~ 4% are under age 50 yrs
Incidence increases rapidly over age 60 yrs
Incidence (Canada):
~100,000 at any one time
100-200 / 100,000 people have Parkinson’s
~ 0.15 % of population
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