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BIOL 1F90 (338)

Animal Diversity

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David Fennell

Chapter 38 Introduction to Animal Form and Function • All animal cells share similarities in the ways in which they o Exchange materials with their surroundings o Obtain energy from organic nutrients o Synthesize complex molecules o Duplicate themselves o Detect and respond to signals in their immediate environment Tissues • Specialized cells of a given type cluster together • There are four categories; muscle, nervous, epithelial and connective Muscle Tissue • Cells specialized to contact • 3 types o Skeletal- attached to bone or exoskeleton for locomotion, voluntary control o Smooth- surrounds hollow tubes and cavities for propulsion of contents, non- voluntary control o Cardiac- only in the heart, involuntary control Nervous Tissue • Initiate and conduct electrical signals from one part of the animals body to another • Electrical signals produced in one nerve cell may stimulate or inhibit other nerve cells to o Initiate new electrical signals o Stimulate muscle to contract o Stimulate glands to release chemicals Epithelial Tissues • Is a structure function • Sheets of densely packed cells that o Cover the body or individual organs o Line the walls of body cavities • Specialized to protect and secrete or absorb • Reset on basal lamina or basement membrane • Can function as selective barriers • Simple epithelium- one cell thick and may be squamous, cuboidal or columnar • Many types of epithelial tissue (names reflect shape of cells) Connective Tissues • Connect, anchor and support • Includes blood adipose, bone, cartilage, loose and dense connective tissue • Form an extracellular matrix around cells o Provides scaffold for attachment o Protects and cushions o Mechanical strength o Transmit information Organs • Composed of 2 or more kinds of tissues • Organ system- different organs work together to perform and overall function • Organ systems frequently work together- nervous and endocrine system • Spatial arrangement of organs into organ systems part of overall body plan • Body plan controlled by highly conserved family of genes with homologs in all animals • Many types of tissues make up an organ such as the stomach Inner Surface of Healthy Stomach • Structure-function • Rugae- folds on the inner surface are important for increasing surface area Organ Systems • Circulatory • Digestive • Endocrine • Excretory • Immune and lymphatic • Integumentary • Muscular-skeletal • Nervous • Reproductive • Respiratory Body Fluids • 2 main compartments o Intracellular fluid- inside cells o Extracellular fluid- outside cells  Plasma- fluid portion of blood  Interstitial fluid- fluid between cells  Separate in closed systems  Hemolymph intermingles to fluids in many invertebrates • Intracellular and extracellular fluid can be very different in solute composition • Closed vs open circulatory systems are different Movement of Water • Plasma membranes tend to be highly permeable to water • Fluid moves readily between compartments o Os
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