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Lecture 16

BIOL 1F90 Lecture Notes - Lecture 16: Carboxylic Acid, Oxidative Phosphorylation, Acid3

Biological Sciences
Course Code
Fiona Hunter

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Lecture 16: Continuation of Chapter 7
October 23, 2015
Glucose Metabolism
C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O
Four metabolic pathways
1. Glycolysis (occurs in cytosol)
2. Breakdown of pyruvate
3. Citric acid cycle
4. Oxidative phosphorylation
(Pathways 2 – 4 occur in mitochondria)
-Store so much energy as molecules and ATP
- Oxygen is a pig for electrons, free energy scale- energy available
out of a molecule. Nothing you can get out of co2- does nothing
for you just exhale it.
- Fat- carbon bonded to other carbons- least oxidized most
hydrogen attached- most potential energy (fats!!)
- Unsaturated-oxidized or add hydroxyl group oxidize more- turn
carbon into carboxylic acid- almost completely oxidized
- A lot of carbons have one bond to oxygen
- Look at fatty acid structure that carbons –most potential energy
- Pyruvate- has 3 carbons (carboxylic acid-3 bonds, carbonyl
carbon (2 bonds), and CH3-methyl) – less potential energy than
the glucose, oxidized, lost entropy, down in potential energy-
process occurs in the cytoplasm
- Carboxylic acid gets oxidized completely and leaves the CO2-
correlated with two NADH being produced
- Glucose to pyruvate- 2 ATP one per each pyruvate and two
- Citric acid cycle- takes 4 carbon, takes 2 carbon takes together to
make a 6 carbon molecule (citric acid) lost one and another

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carbon as CO2, each step we generate NADH, as cycle proceeds
(4 carbons left) get oxidized, and starts over.
- Convert NADH (battery that is charged) to ATP (energy), oxygen
can such electrons away from things
- Oxidative phosphorylation: energy is used to take protons from
inside to outside of the matrix to form a gradient and make ATP
- Mitochondria supplies NADH and ATP (energy power house)
oxidized the pyruvate to make these two products (what the cell
Stage one: glycolysis
Glycolysis can occur...
In the presence of oxygen, aerobically, or
In the absence of oxygen, anaerobically
Steps are nearly identical in all organisms
Glycolysis arose early in evolution of life
10 steps in 3 phases
Energy investment (start with energy rich molecule, and
give it even more energy- 6 carbon add phosphates to it
and cut in half (two 3 carbons) make ATP and NADH
Cleavage (turning into 3 carbons)
Energy liberation (oxidizing the three carbons)
- Occurs in the cell but doesn’t need oxygen, get NADH and ATP
out of it, lots of glucose=lots of energy (a lot of pyruvate) cell
takes pyruvate and makes energy
3 Phases of Glycolysis
1. Energy investment (steps 1-3)
2 ATP hydrolyzed to create fructose-1,6 bisphosphate
2. Cleavage (steps 4-5)
6 carbon molecule broken into two 3 carbon molecules of
3. Energy liberation (steps 6-10)
Two glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate molecules broken down
into two pyruvate molecules producing 2 NADH and 4 ATP
Net yield in NADH of 2
Net yield in ATP of 2
Net Reaction of Glycolysis (ATP actually regulates if glycolysis needs to
C6H12O6 + 2 NAD+ + 2 ADP + 2 Pi → glucose
2 CH3(C=O) COO + 2 H+ + 2 NADH + 2 ATP + 2 H2O Pyruvate
Net yield of NADH is 2 molecules
Net yield of ATP is 2 molecules
When enough ATP is produced...
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