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Lecture 9

BIOL 1F90 Lecture 9: BIOL 1F90 lecture 9 winter 2016

Biological Sciences
Course Code
Fiona Hunter

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Friday, January 22, 2016
BIOL 1F90, winter
Lecture 9
Etymology of Terms
-gen- that which produces
-hetero- dierent
-inter- between; among
-intra- within; internal
-mono- one; single; alone
-morph- form
-poly- many
Learning Outcomes
-describe characteristics of a population that is in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
-outline the dierences between allele frequency and genotype frequency
-compare and contrast various micro-evolutionary forces
-characterize the patterns of matura selection
-define evolutionary (Darwinian) fitness
-demonstrate how success of dierent phenotypes can be compared by calculating their
relative fitness
-define intrasexual selection and intersexual selection
-explain what is meant by genetic drift
-describe the phenomena of bottleneck eect and founder eect and explain how they
contribute to changes in allelic frequencies
-describe how migration and nonrandom mating patterns aect genetic variation in
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Friday, January 22, 2016
Population Genetics
-study of genes and genotypes in a population
-want to know:
-extent of genetic variation
-why it exists
-how is it maintained, and
-how it changes over the course of many generations
-helps us understand how genetic variation is related to the phenotypic variations
Genotype vs Phenotype
-genotype: set of allele that determines (in part) the expression of a particular trait
-Phenotype: physical (or biochemical) expression of a trait based on genes and
Gene Pool
-all of the alleles for every gene in a given population
-study genetic variation within the gene pool and how variation changes from one
generation to the next
-emphasis is often on variation in alleles between members of a population
-group of individuals of the same species that occupy the same environment and can
interbreed with one another
-some species occupy a wide geographic range and are divided into discrete populations
Allele and Genotype Frequency
-related but distinct calculations
Allele frequency= number of copies of specific allele at a particular locus in population
total number of alleles for that gene in a population
Genotype frequency= number of individuals with a particular genotype in a population
total number of individuals in a population
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