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Lecture 12

BIOL 2P03 Lecture 12: Week 12 Screencast - The Immune System

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Mark K Lukewich

BIOL 2P03 Week 12 Screencast The Immune System rd th April 3 April 9 , 2017 Immune System The immune system consists of a collection of specialized tissues, cells, signaling molecules and anti microbial agents that protect the body from invading microorganisms and promote tissue repair o Innate immune system o Adaptive immune system Natural Barriers Physical Barriers The human body is covered by physical barriers that provide the first line of protection against invading microorganisms o Made up of tightly connected epithelial cells Skin lines the outer surface of the body Mucous membranes line the gastrointestinal, genitourinary and respiratory tracts Chemical Barriers Epithelial cells secrete chemicals that also protect against microbial invasion o Sweat, tears and saliva not only wash away microorganisms, but they also contain enzymes that kill bacteria, such as defensin o Mucus and earwax limit the ability of microorganisms to access the underlying epithelial cell surface Innate Immune System The innate immune system provides the second line of defense against invading microorganisms Rapid and nonspecific defense mechanisms o Responds within minutes of invasion o Receptors detect surface molecules that are common to many microorganisms and are evolutionarily conserved Functions to clear the infection or contain it until the acquired immune system becomes activated Consists of several specialized white blood cell, known as leukocytes Innate Immune Cells Monocytes Circulate in the bloodstream Enter tissues throughout the body where they subsequently differentiate into macrophages
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