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Lecture 1

BIOL 2P03 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Primary Cell, Flow Cytometry, Differential Centrifugation

Biological Sciences
Course Code
Jeff Stuart

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Lecture 1 - tools and approaches
1. How to visualize cells? Types of microscopy
2. How to work with cells? Isolating cells from tissues
3. Isolating organelles from cells
4. Manipulating cellular functions
5. Measuring cellular activities
Microscopy: Development of microscopy was essential to development of cell
The &rst light microscopes
oBeginning in 1600s Anton van Leeuwenhoek produced a series of
compound light microscopes capable of almost 300x magni&cation
Cell Theory
1. All organisms are composed of cells
2. The cell is the basic structural and functional unit of organisms
3. New cells arise from existing cells
Tissues are composed of
di/erent types of cells
Di/erent cell types have di/erent
and these are related to their
di/erent functions
First electron microscope:
Ernst Ruska at Berlin Technical University in 1931
By using electrons instead of photons, electron microscopes magnify by more
than 1 million times (compare to about a thousand times for light
With transmission electron microscopy can visualize organelles and even
smaller structures
But cells must be &xed (and therefore dead) and sliced very thinly
Fluorescence microscopy – can see di/erent organelles in either &xed or
living cells
real time changes in response to stimuli in live cells
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