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BIOL 2P92 (117)

Death Denial

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Ingrid Makus

 death denial is normal  But for most part defence mechanisms are maladaptive Relationship of psychoanalytic concepts to psychopathology  Phobias- irrational fears and avoidance of harmless objects or situations—were caused by an unresolved Oedipal conflict with the fear of the father displaced onto some other object or situation. When they are 4 /5 boys covet their mothers, albeit at an unconscious level.  Similarly OCD was traced to the anal stage with the urge to soil or to be aggressive transformed by reaction formation into compulsive cleanliness  In his early work Freud postulated that the cause of his patients hysterical problems was sexual abuse in childhood typically rape by the father Neo-Freudian psychodynamic perspectives  All have continued to embrace his emphasis on human beh as the product of dynamics within the psyche Psychoanalytic therapy  Classical psychoanalysis is based on frueds 2 theory of neurotic anxiety that neurotic anxiety is the reaction of the ego when a previously punished and repressed id impulse presses for expression  Psychoanalytic therapy is an insight therapy. It attempts to remove the earlier repression and help the patient face the childhood conflict, gain insight into it and resolve it in the light of adult reality. The repression occurring so long ago has prevented the ego from growing in an adult fashion; the lifting of the repression is supposed to enable this relearning to take place  Free association- when the patient reclines on a couch facing away from the analyst and is encouraged to give free rein on his or her thoughts verbalizing whatever comes to mind. Person can overcome defences that are built up.  The patient may suddenly become silent or change the topic. These resistances are noted by the analyst as they are assumed 2 signal a sensitive or ego threatening area. These sensitive areas are what the analyst will want to probe further  Dream analysis is another analytic technique. In sleep ego defences are relaxed allowing normally repressed material to enter the sleepers consciousness. Since this material is extremely threatening it is rarely allowed into consciousness in its actual form; rather the repressed material is disguised and dreams take on heavily symbolic context (referred to as the latent content of the dream)  Transference- the patients response to the analyst are not in keeping with the analyst-patient relationship but seem instead to reflect relationships with imp ppl in the patients past. Its encouraged cuz they can gain insight into the childhood origin of repressed conflicts  counter transference refers to analysts feelings toward the patient. Analyst must be aware of their own feelings so that they can see the patient clearly.  As repressed material begins 2 appear interpretation comes into play. The analyst points out the meaning of certain beh. Defence mechanisms are a focus Modifications in psychoanalytic therapy  One innovation was to apply it to groups of ppl rather than only to indiv. Some therapists focus on the psychodynamics of indiv in the group  The key issue is whether the group format dilutes the transference to the therapist and thus makes the therapy ineffective  Other current analytic therapies include ego analysis, brief psychodynamic therapy and interpersonal psychodynamic therapy  Ego analysis-------approach is sometimes described as psychodynamic rather than psychoanalytic  Those who subscribe to ego analysis place greater emphasis on a persons abil
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