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BIOL 2P93 (93)

Introduction to Endocrinology

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Jenny Janke

Intro to Endocrinology I. Definitions a. Endocrine—glandular secretions inside body; uses hormones & bloodstream b. Exocrine—glandular secretion of substances outside body c. Hormone—substance released by an endocrine gland & transported through blood to another tissue (target) where it exerts its function d. Autocrine—hormone acts on the cell that produced it (eg: insulin) e. Paracrine—hormone acts locally on nearby cells (w/in same gland) II. Endocrine Glands a. Characteristics i. Ductless ii. Richly vascularized b. Classic Endocrine Glands i. Anterior & Posterior Hypophysis ii. Thyroid & Parathyroid iii. Adrenal Cortex & Medulla iv. Testis & Ovary v. Pancreatic Islets vi. Placenta c. Non-Classic Endocrine Glands i. Brain, kidney, heart, liver stomach, small intestine III. Hormones a. Classes i. Tyrosine-derived 1. Amine: Dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine a. Synthesized in 4 steps from tyrosine 2. Thyroid Hormones: thyroxine (T4), & tri-iodo-tyronine (T3) a. Synthesized in thyroid from 3-monoiodotyrosine ii. Polypeptides 1. may be small or large iii. Steroid hormones 1. derived from cholesterol 2. may have intact or broken steroid nucleus b. Functions i. Reproduction & sex (LH, FSH, PRL, E2, T) ii. Growth (GH, insulin like growth factors) iii. Maintenance of H2O, electrolyte, & blood pressure (ADH, aldosterone) iv. Regulation of energy availability (insulin, glucagons, cortisol, T3, T4) c. Synthesis & Release i. Ves
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